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Full nameHaryana
Native name   
Established1 November 1966
GovernorShob G
Chief MinisterBhupinder Singh Hooda (INC)
LegislatureUnicameral (90 seats)
Parliamentary constituency10
High CourtPunjab and Haryana High Court
Total Area17065.8 sq mi (44212 km2)
Area rank20th
Total Population25353081 (16th) (2011)
Density (pop.)auto/km2 (0/sq mi)
Other information
Time zoneIST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 codeIN-HR
HDI(+) 0.644 (medium)
HDI rank11th (2005)
Literacy71.4% (17th)
Official languagesHaryanavi, Punjabi, English

     Home | State | Haryana

Haryana ( , -urɦərɪˈjaːɳaːpron) is a state in India. Historically, it has been a part of the Kuru region in North India. The name Haryana is found mentioned in the 12th century AD by the apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar (VS 1189-1230). It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south. The river Yamuna defines its eastern border with Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. Haryana also surrounds Delhi on three sides, forming the northern, western and southern borders of Delhi. Consequently, a large area of Haryana is included in the National Capital Region. The capital of the state is Chandigarh which is administered as a union territory and is also the capital of Punjab.

Sites in Haryana were part of the Indus Valley and Vedic Civilizations. Several decisive battles were fought in the area, which shaped much of the history of India. These include the epic battle of Mahabharata at Kurukshetra mentioned in the Hindu mythology (including the recital of the Bhagavad Gita by Krishna), and the three battles of Panipat. Haryana was administered as part of the Punjab province of British India, and was carved out on linguistic lines as India's 17th state in 1966. Haryana is now a leading contributor to the country's production of foodgrain and milk. Agriculture is the leading occupation for the residents of the state, the flat arable land irrigated by submersible pumps and an extensive canal system. Haryana contributed heavily to the Green Revolution that made India self-sufficient in food production in the 1960s.

Haryana is one of the wealthiest states of India and has the third highest per capita income in the country at Rs. 67,891, including the largest number of rural crorepatis in India. Haryana is also one of the most economically developed regions in South Asia and its agricultural and manufacturing industry has experienced sustained growth since 1970s. Haryana is India's largest manufacturer of passenger cars, two-wheelers, and tractors. Since 2000, the state has emerged as the largest recipient of investment per capita in India. The city of Gurgaon has rapidly emerged as a major hub for the information technology and automobile industries. Gurgaon is home to Maruti Udyog Limited, India's largest automobile manufacturer, and Hero MotoCorp Limited, the world's largest manufacturer of two-wheelers. Yamunanagar, Panipat, Panchkula and Faridabad are also industrial hubs, with the Panipat Refinery being the second largest refinery in South Asia. There are also long established steel, plywood, paper and textile industries in the state.

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