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Thailand

Thailand
General information
Common nameThailand
Local name 
Name 
AnthemPhleng Chat Thai
Royal anthemPhleng Sansoen Phra Barami
CapitalBangkok (Thai: Krung Thep)1
Largest citycapital
Official languagesThai
Official scriptsThai alphabet
DemonymThai
Government
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy
KingBhumibol Adulyadej
Prime MinisterYingluck Shinawatra
LegislatureNational Assembly
Upper HouseSenate
Lower HouseHouse of Representatives
FormationFormation
Sukhothai Kingdom1238 1448
Ayutthaya Kingdom1351 1767
Thonburi Kingdom1768 1782
Rattanakosin Kingdom6 April 1782
Constitutional monarchy24 June 1932
2007 Constitution24 August 2007
Geography
Total Area198115 sq mi (513117.9 km2) (51st)
Water %0.4 (2,230 km2)
Demography
Population Est.66,720,1532 (19th)
Population census60606947 (2000)
Density (pop.)132/km2 (88th) (342/sq mi)
Economy
GDP PPP$586.877 billion (2010) (24th)
GDP (PPP) per capita$9,187 (86th)
GDP (nominal)$318.85 billion (2010) (30th)
GDP (nominal) per capita$4,992 (88th)
Other information
Gini42 (2002)
HDI(+)0.654 (2010) (medium) (92nd)
CurrencyBaht (฿) (THB)
Drives on theleft
Internet TLD.th, .ไทย
Calling code+66

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Thailand (c-eniconˈtaɪlænd or c-enˈtaɪlənd; , ), officially the Kingdom of Thailand ( , ; -thrâːt.tɕʰā ʔāːnāːtɕàk tʰājIPATh-pratheidthai raachaanaajakthai, formerly known as Siam ( ; ), is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Burma. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast and Indonesia and India in the Andaman Sea to the southwest.

The country is a kingdom, with most recorded reigns in the world. It is a constitutional monarchy with King Rama IX, the ninth king of the House of Chakri, who has reigned since 1946, making him the world's longest-serving current head of state and the longest-reigning monarch in Thai history. The king is officially titled Head of State, the Head of the Armed Forces, an Upholder of the Buddhist religion, and the Defender of all Faiths.

Thailand is the world's 51st largest country in terms of total area (slightly smaller than Yemen and slightly larger than Spain), with a surface area of approximately , and the 21st most-populous country, with approximately 64 million people. The largest city is Bangkok, the capital, which is also the country's center of political, commercial, industrial and cultural activities. About 75% of the population is ethnically Thai, 14% is of Chinese origin, and 3% is ethnically Malay; the rest belong to minority groups including Mons, Khmers and various hill tribes. The country's official language is Thai. The primary religion is Buddhism, which is practiced by around 95% of all Thais.

Thailand experienced rapid economic growth between 1985 and 1995 and is a newly industrialized country with tourism, due to well-known tourist destinations such as Ayutthaya, Pattaya, Bangkok, Phuket, Krabi, Chiang Mai, and Ko Samui, and exports contributing significantly to the economy. There are approximately 2.2 million legal and illegal migrants in Thailand. Thailand has also attracted a number of expatriates from developed countries.


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