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Burma

Burma
General information
Common nameBurma
Local name
Pyidaunzu Thanmăda Myăma Nainngandaw
Name
Pyidaunzu Thanmăda Myăma Nainngandaw
AnthemKaba Ma Kyei
CapitalNaypyidaw
Largest cityYangon (Rangoon)
Official languagesBurmese
Regional languagesJingpho, Kayah, Karen, Chin, Mon, Rakhine, Shan
Official scriptsBurmese script
DemonymBurmese / Myanma
Government
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
PresidentThein Sein
Vice PresidentTin Aung Myint Oo
Sai Mauk Kham
LegislaturePyidaungsu Hluttaw
Upper HouseAmyotha Hluttaw
Lower HousePyithu Hluttaw
FormationFormation
Pagan Dynasty23 December 849
Toungoo Dynasty16 October 1510
Konbaung Dynasty21 March 1752
Independence
(from UK)
4 January 1948
Coup d'état2 March 1962
New constitution30 March 2011
Geography
Total Area261227 sq mi (676577.9 km2) (40th)
Water %3.06
Demography
Population Est.58840000 (24th)
Population census33,234,000 (3) (1983)
Density (pop.)73.9/km2 (119th) (191.5/sq mi)
Economy
GDP PPP$76.473 billion (2010)
GDP (PPP) per capita$1,250
GDP (nominal)$42.953 billion (2010)
GDP (nominal) per capita$702
Other information
HDI(-) 0.451  (2010) (low) (132nd)
Currencykyat (K) (MMK)
Time zoneMST (UTC+06:30)
Drives on theright
Internet TLD.mm
Calling code95

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Burma c-enaudio=En-us-Burma.oggˈbɜrmə, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar c-enaudio=En-us-Myanmar.oggˌmjɑːnˈmɑr ( , Pyidaunzu Thanmăda Myăma Nainngandaw, -mypjìdà̀uɴzṵ θà̀ɴməda̯ mjəmà nàiɴŋàɴdɔ̀pron), is a country in Southeast Asia. The country is bordered by the People's Republic of China on the northeast, Laos on the east, Thailand on the southeast, Bangladesh on the west, India on the northwest, and the Bay of Bengal to the southwest, with the Andaman Sea defining its southern periphery. One-third of Burma's total perimeter of 1930 km (1199.2 mi) forms an uninterrupted coastline. At 676,578 km2 (261,227 sq mi), Burma is the 40th largest country in the world and the second largest country in Southeast Asia. Burma is also the 24th most populous country in the world with over 58.8 million people.

Burma is home to some of the major civilizations of Southeast Asia including Pyu and Mon. In 9th century, the Burmans of the Kingdom of Nanzhao, entered the upper Irrawaddy valley and established the Pagan Kingdom in 1057. The Burmese language and culture slowly came to intertwine with Pyu and Mon norms. During this period, Pagan Kings adopted Buddhism as the predominant religion of the country. After Pagan's fall in 1287, several warring states emerged. In the second half of the 16th century, the Taungoo Dynasty reunified the country, and founded the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia for a brief period. In the 18th century, the Konbaung Dynasty restored the kingdom, and went to war with all its neighbors. The kingdom fought three wars with the British and was eventually annexed into British Raj.

The British rule brought several enduring social, economic, cultural and administrative changes that completely transformed the once-feudal society. Since independence in 1948, the country has been in one of the longest running civil wars among the country's myriad ethnic groups that remains unresolved. From 1962 to 2011, the country was under military rule and in the process has become one of the least developed nations in the world. The military junta finally dissolved in 2011 following a general election in 2010 and the subsequent inauguration of Burma's civilian government.

Burma is a resource rich country. However, since the reformations of 1962, the Burmese economy has become one of the least developed in the world. Burma’s GDP stands at $42.953 billion and grows at an average rate of 2.9% annually the lowest rate of economic growth in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Among others, the EU, United States and Canada have imposed economic sanctions on Burma. Burma's health care system is one of the worst in the world: World Health Organization ranked Burma at 190th, the worst performing of all countries.

The United Nations and several other organizations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country, including child labour, human trafficking and a lack of freedom of speech.


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