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Haifa

NameHaifa
EmblemHaifa_coa.svg
Emblem TypeEmblem of Haifa
Image SkylineHaifa Israel by David Shankbone.jpg
Image CaptionHaifa from Baha'i gardens
Hebname 
Arname 
ISOḤeipa
Typecity
StdHebHeifa
Districthaifa
Population265,500
Population Footnotes
Population Urban600,000
Population Metro1,039,000
Popyear2009
Area Dunam63666
MayorYona Yahav
Pushpin MapIsrael
Latd32|latm=49|lats=0|latNS=N
Longd34|longm=59|longs=0|longEW=E

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Haifa ( , -heχeiˈfä, ; ) is the largest city in northern Israel, and the third-largest city in the country, with a population of over 265,000. Another 300,000 people live in towns directly adjacent to the city including the cities of the Krayot, as well as, Tirat Carmel, Daliyat al-Karmel and Nesher. Together these areas form a contiguous urban area home to nearly 600,000 residents which makes up the inner core of the Haifa metropolitan area. Haifa is mixed city: 90% are Jews, more than a quarter of whom are immigrants from the former Soviet Union, while 10% are Arabs, predominantly of the Christian faith. It is also home to the Bahá'í World Centre, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Built on the slopes of Mount Carmel, the history of settlement at the site spans more than 3,000 years. The earliest known settlement in the vicinity was Tell Abu Hawam, a small port city established in the Late Bronze Age (14th century BCE). In the 3rd century CE, Haifa was known as a dye-making center. Over the centuries, the city has changed hands: It has been conquered and ruled by the Phoenicians, Hebrews, Persians, Hasmoneans, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Crusaders, Ottomans, British, and the Israelis. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the city has been governed by the Haifa Municipality.

Today, the city is a major seaport located on Israel's Mediterranean coastline in the Bay of Haifa covering 63.7 km2 (24.6 sqmi). It is located about 90 km (55.9 mi) north of Tel Aviv and is the major regional center of northern Israel. Two respected academic institutions, the University of Haifa and the Technion, are located in Haifa, and the city plays an important role in Israel's economy. It has several high-tech parks, among them the oldest and largest in the country, an industrial port, and a petroleum refinery. Haifa was formerly the western terminus of an oil pipeline from Iraq via Jordan.


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