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Russo-Turkish War (1877 � 1878)

Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878)
Plevna Monument near the walls of Kitai-gorod
Military Conflict
ConflictRusso-Turkish War (1877 � 1878)
DateApril 24, 1877 � March 3, 1878
LocationBalkans, Caucasus
ResultRussian victory
Treaty of San Stefano, Treaty of Berlin
Reestablishment of the Bulgarian state; full independence of Romania, Serbia and Montenegro from Ottoman Empire; Kars becomes a part of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
Bulgarian volunteers
Romania Romania
Serbia Serbia
Principality of Montenegro
Ottoman Empire
Russian Empire Mikhail Skobelev
Russian Empire Michael Nikolaevich
Russian Empire Mikhail Loris-Melikov
Russian Empire Joseph Gourko
Russian Empire Ivan Lazarev
Romania Carol I of Romania
Serbia Kosta Protić
Ottoman Empire Ahmed Pasha
Ottoman Empire Osman Pasha
Ottoman Empire Suleiman Pasha
Ottoman Empire Mehmed Pasha
Ottoman Empire Veisel Pasha
Russia - 737,355
500 cannons
Romania - 60,000
190 cannons
Bulgaria - 40,000
Serbia - 81,500
Montenegro - 25,000
Ottoman Empire - 281,000
Russia - 15,567 killed in battle,
6,824 died from wounds,
81,363 died from disease,
1,713 dead from other causes,
3,500 missing,
56,652 wounded,
35,000 released from service as no longer fit for service
Romania: 4,302 dead and missing, 3,316 wounded, 19,904 sick.
Bulgaria - 15,000 dead and wounded 
Serbia - 5,000 dead and wounded 
Montenegro- 5,000 dead and wounded 
30,000 killed, 90,000 died from sickness 

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The Russo-Turkish War of 1877 � 1878 (Bulgarian: Руско-турска освободителна война (1877-1878 г.), Russian: Русско-турецкая война (1877-1878 гг.), Ottoman: , Doksan Üç Harbi ('93 Harbi, "93 War"), Turkish: '93 Harbi or 1877 � 78 Osmanlı-Rus Savaşı) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and numerous Balkan countries. Fought in the Balkans and in the Caucasus, its origins lie in the wake of nationalism in the Balkan region as well as in the Russian aspiration of recovering territorial losses it had suffered during the Crimean War, reestablishing itself in the Black Sea and following the political movement attempting to free Balkan nations from the Ottoman Empire.

As a result of the war, Russia succeeded in claiming several provinces in the Caucasus, namely Kars and Batum. The principalities of Romania (which was also forced by Russia to cede the Budjak region of the Danube delta, in breach of the treaty by which Romania became a Russian ally and allowed the passage of Russian troops on its territory), Serbia and Montenegro, each of which had had de facto sovereignty for some time, formally proclaimed independence from the Ottoman Empire. After almost five centuries of Ottoman domination (1396 � 1878), the Bulgarian state was reestablished as the Principality of Bulgaria, covering the land between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains (except Northern Dobrudja which was given to Romania) as well as the region of Sofia, which became the new state's capital. The Congress of Berlin also allowed Austria-Hungary to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina and the United Kingdom to take over Cyprus.

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