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Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
NameCharles V & I
Holy Roman Emperor;
King of the Romans;
King of Italy
Reign28 June 1519 - 27 August 1556
Coronation26 October 1520, Aachen (German royal)
22 February 1530, Bologna (Italian royal)
24 February 1530, Bologna (imperial)
PredecessorMaximilian I
SuccessorFerdinand I
King of Spain
with Joanna the Mad to 1555
Reign23 January 1516 - 16 January 1556
PredecessorJoanna of Castile
Ferdinand II of Aragon
SuccessorPhilip II of Spain
Duke of Burgundy, Lord of the Netherlands and Count Palatine of Burgundy
Reign25 September 1506 - 25 October 1555
PredecessorPhilip I of Castile
SuccessorPhilip II of Spain
SpouseIsabella of Portugal
Philip II, King of Spain
Maria, Holy Roman Empress
Joan, Princess of Portugal
John of Austria (illegitimate)
Margaret, Duchess of Florence and Parma (illegitimate)
HouseHouse of Habsburg
FatherPhilip I of Castile
MotherJoanna of Castile
Place of burialEl Escorial, San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain
ReligionRoman Catholicism

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Charles V (Spanish: Carlos I, German: Karl V., Italian: Carlo Quinto, Dutch: Karel V, French: Charles Quint; 24 February 1500 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I and his son Philip II in 1556.

As the heir of three of Europe's leading dynasties—the House of Habsburg of the Habsburg Monarchy; the House of Valois-Burgundy of the Burgundian Netherlands; and the House of Trastámara of Crown of Castile-León & Aragon—he ruled over extensive domains in Central, Western, and Southern Europe; and the Spanish colonies in North, Central, and South America, the Caribbean, and Asia.

Charles was the eldest son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna of Castile. When Philip died in 1506, Charles became ruler of the Burgundian Netherlands, and his mother's co-ruler in Spain upon the death of his maternal grandfather, Ferdinand the Catholic, in 1516. As Charles was the first person to rule Castile-León and Aragon simultaneously in his own right, he became the first King of Spain (Charles co-reigned with his mother Joanna, which was however a technicality given her mental instability). In 1519, Charles succeeded his paternal grandfather Maximilian as Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria. From that point forward, Charles's realm, which has been described as "the empire on which the sun never sets", spanned nearly four million square kilometers across Europe, the Far East, and the Americas.

Much of Charles' reign was devoted to the Italian Wars against the French kings Francis I and Henry II, which although enormously expensive, were militarily successful due to the undefeated Spanish tercio and the efforts of his prime ministers Mercurino Gattinara and Francisco de los Cobos y Molina. Charles' forces re-captured both Milan and Franche-Comté from France after the decisive Habsburg victory at the Battle of Pavia in 1525, which pushed Francis to form the Franco-Ottoman alliance. Charles' rival Suleiman the Magnificent conquered Hungary in 1526 after defeating the Christians at the Battle of Mohács. However, the Ottoman advance was halted after they failed to capture Vienna in 1529.

Aside from this, Charles is best known for his role in opposing the Protestant Reformation. In addition to the German Peasants' War against the Empire, several German princes abandoned the Catholic Church and formed the Schmalkaldic League in order to challenge Charles' authority with military force. Unwilling to allow the same religious wars to come to his other domains, Charles pushed for the convocation of the Council of Trent, which began the Counter-Reformation. The Society of Jesus was established by St. Ignacio de Loyola during Charles' reign in order to peacefully and intellectually combat Protestantism, and continental Spain was spared from religious conflict due to the Inquisition. In Germany, although the Protestants were personally defeated by Charles at the Battle of Mühlberg in 1547, he legalized Lutheranism within the Holy Roman Empire with the Peace of Augsburg. Charles also maintained his alliance with Henry VIII of England, despite the latter splitting the Church of England from Rome and violently persecuting Catholics.

In the New World, Charles oversaw the Spanish colonization of the Americas, including the conquest of both the Aztec Empire and the Inca Empire. The rapid Christianization of New Spain was attributed to the miracle of Our Lady of Guadalupe. Uncomfortable with how his viceroys were governing the Americas vis-à-vis the Native Americans, Charles consulted figures such as Francisco de Vitoria and Bartolomé de las Casas on the morality of colonization. He also provided five ships to Ferdinand Magellan and his navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano, after the Portuguese captain was repeatedly turned down by Manuel I of Portugal. The commercial success of Magellan's voyage (the first circumnavigation of the Earth) temporarily enriched Charles by the sale of its cargo of cloves and laid the foundation for the Pacific oceanic empire of Spain, and along with Ruy López de Villalobos, began Spanish colonization of the Philippines.

Though always at war, Charles was essentially a lover of peace, and all his wars were virtually defensive. "Not greedy of territory", wrote Marcantonio Contarini in 1536, "but most greedy of peace and quiet." Charles retired in 1556. The Habsburg Monarchy passed to Charles' younger brother Ferdinand, whereas the Spanish Empire was inherited by his son Philip II. The two empires would remain allies until the 18th century.

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The Fourth Reich Is Here - Tweet this news first five -Holy Roman- Empires resurrected under the successive leadership of Justinian (ad 554); Charlemagne (ad 800); Otto the Great (ad 962); -Charles v-, commencing the Habsburg dynasty (1530); and Napoleon, who crowned himself - Date : Fri, 30 Sep 2011 21:33:13 GMT
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Irish Times--And a four-part one was by the -Holy Roman Emperor-, -Charles V-, who said: “I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men, and German to my horse.” Which, with some tweaking, would make a good presidential slogan, appealing to - Date : Tue, 11 Oct 2011 23:54:21 GMT
Today in History - April 18 - (press release) Tweet this news (press release)--In 1521, at the Diet of Worms, -Holy Roman Emperor Charles V- condemned Martin Luther a year after the latter had been excommunicated by Pope Leo X. Luther, a proud man, refused to repent despite the severe action taken against - Date : Mon, 18 Apr 2011 06:22:29 GMT+00:00
Feb. 24 in Christian History - Gospel Herald Tweet this news
Gospel Herald--1500 - Birth of -Holy Roman Emperor Charles V-. Reigning 1519-56, it was Charles who officially pronounced Martin Luther an outlaw and heretic. 1782 - Pioneer American Methodist bishop Francis Asbury wrote in his journal: 'It is my con - Date : Thu, 24 Feb 2011 20:01:11 GMT+00:00
Monday, January 31 - KENS 5 TV Tweet this news
KENS 5 TV--1531 - -Holy Roman Emperor Charles V- appoints his sister, Mary of Hungary, as Regent of the Netherlands. 1606 - Guy Fawkes, convicted for his part in the ... - Date : Mon, 24 Jan 2011 00:40:55 GMT+00:00
Taking A Separate Path - Wall Street Journal Tweet this news
Wall Street Journal--No mention of the Aztecs or the Incas and hardly anything about the Spanish Empire or its rulers, even so great an -emperor- as -Charles V- (1500-58). ... - Date : Sun, 09 Jan 2011 22:59:14 GMT+00:00
In History - Viet Nam News Tweet this news
Viet Nam News--Treaty of Rijswijk is signed, under which England, Spain, Holland and the -Holy Roman Emperor- make peace with France at the end of the War of the Grand ... - Date : Mon, 20 Sep 2010 02:19:35 GMT+00:00
My Island in the Sun by Dr Sanjiva Wijesinha - The Island (subscription) Tweet this news
The Island (subscription)--Within the grounds of the Alhambra stands the impressive Palace built after the conquest by King Carlos -V- (The -Holy Roman Emperor Charles V-) inside which ... - Date : Sat, 29 May 2010 20:04:07 GMT+00:00

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Philip the Handsome
Duke of Brabant, Limburg,
Lothier and Luxembourg;
Count of Artois, Flanders, Hainaut,
Holland, Namur and Zeeland;
Count Palatine of Burgundy
1506 - 1555
Succeeded by
Philip the Prudent
Preceded by
Ferdinand the Catholic
King of Naples
1516 - 1554
with Joanna III 1516 - 1554
King of Aragon, Majorca,
Valencia, Sicily and Navarre;
Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne
1516 - 1556
with Joanna 1516 - 1555
Preceded by
Joanna the Mad
King of Castile and León
1516 - 1556
with Joanna 1516 - 1555
Preceded by
William the Rich
Duke of Guelders, Count of Zutphen
1543 - 1555
Preceded by
Maximilian I
Archduke of Austria
Duke of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola
Count of Tyrol
1519 - 1521
Succeeded by
Ferdinand I
German King
(formally King of the Romans)
1519 - 1530
King of Italy
1530 - 1558
Holy Roman Emperor
1530 - 1558
(Emperor-elect 1520 - 1530)
Spanish royalty
Preceded by
Infanta Joanna
later Queen Joanna
Prince of Asturias
1504 - 1516
VacantPrince of Girona
23 January - 14 March 1516

Holy Roman Emperors

Carolingian EmpireCharles I (Charlemagne) * Louis I * Lothair I * Louis II * Charles II * Charles III * Guy * Lambert * Arnulf * Louis III * Berengar
Holy Roman EmpireOtto I * Otto II * Otto III * Henry II * Conrad II * Henry III * Henry IV * Henry V * Lothair II * Frederick I * Henry VI * Otto IV * Frederick II * Henry VII * Louis IV * Charles IV * Sigismund * Frederick III * Maximilian I * Charles V * Ferdinand I * Maximilian II * Rudolph II * Matthias * Ferdinand II * Ferdinand III * Leopold I * Joseph I * Charles VI * Charles VII * Francis I * Joseph II * Leopold II * Francis II

Monarchs of Spain from 1479

House of Trastámara (1479 1555)Ferdinand II and Isabella I * Joanna and Philip I
House of Habsburg (1516 1700)Joanna and Charles I * Charles I * Philip II * Philip III * Philip IV * Charles II
House of Bourbon (1700 1808)Philip V * Louis * Philip V * Ferdinand VI * Charles III * Charles IV * Ferdinand VII
House of Bonaparte (1808 1813)Joseph
House of Bourbon (1813 1868)Ferdinand VII * Isabella II
House of Savoy (1868 1873)Amadeo
House of Bourbon (1874 1931)Alfonso XII * Alfonso XIII
House of Bourbon (since 1975)Juan Carlos

Infantes of Aragon

1st GenerationSancho I * Infante García
2nd GenerationPeter I * Alfonso I * Ramiro II
3rd GenerationCrown Prince Peter
4th GenerationInfante Peter * Alfonso II * Peter, Count of Cerdanya * Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Provence * Sancho, Count of Provence * Infante Ramon
5th GenerationPeter II * Alfonso II, Count of Provence * Infante Sancho * Infante Ferdinand * Infante Ramon Berenguer
6th GenerationJames I
7th GenerationCrown Prince Alfonso * Peter III * James II of Majorca * Infante Ferdinand * Infante Sancho * James, Lord of Jérica * Peter, Lord of Ayerbe
8th GenerationAlfonso III * James II * Frederick III of Sicily * Infante Pedro * Infante James* * Sancho of Majorca* * Infante Philip* * Ferdinand, Viscount of Aumelas* * James, Lord of Jérica * Peter, Lord of Ayerbe
9th GenerationCrown Prince James * Alfonso IV * Infante John * Peter, Count of Ribagorza * Ramon Berenguer, Count of Ampurias * Peter II of Sicily** * Infante Roger** * Manfred, Duke of Athens and Neopatria** * William II, Duke of Athens and Neopatria** * John, Duke of Randazzo** * James III of Majorca* * Ferdinand, Viscount of Aumelas* * James, Lord of Jérica * Peter, Lord of Jérica * Alfonso, Lord of Cocentaina
10th GenerationCrown Prince Alfonso * Peter IV * James I, Count of Urgell * Infante Fadrique * Infante Sancho * Ferdinand, Marquis of Tortosa * John, Lord of Elche * Alfonso, Count of Ribagorza * John, Count of Prades * Infante Jaime * John, Count of Ampurias * Peter, Count of Ampurias * Louis of Sicily** * Frederick IV of Sicily** * Frederick I, Duke of Athens and Neopatria** * James IV of Majorca*
11th GenerationInfante Peter * John I * Martin * Infante Alfonso * Alonso, Count of Morella * Infante Peter * Peter II, Count of Urgell * Infante John of Ribagorza * James, Baron of Arenós * Alfonso, Count of Ribagorza * Peter, Marquis of Villena * Peter, Count of Prades * James, Count of Prades * Infante Louis of Prades
12th GenerationInfante James * Infante John * Infante Alfonso * James, Duke of Gerona * Infante Fernando * Pedro, Duke of Gerona * Martin I of Sicily * Infante James * Infante John * Infante Antonio of Urgell * James II, Count of Urgell * Infante Peter of Urgell * John, Baron of Etenza
13th GenerationMartin, Crown Prince of Sicily*
14th GenerationAlfonso V * John II * Henry, Duke of Villena * Peter, Count of Alburquerque * Infante Sancho
15th GenerationCharles, Prince of Viana * Ferdinand II
16th GenerationJuan, Prince of Asturias * John, Prince of Gerona
17th GenerationCharles I of Spain * Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor

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