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Baja California

Baja California
Full nameBaja California
Native nameEstado Libre y Soberano de Baja California
Settlement typeState
AnthemCanto a Baja California
Largest CityTijuana
AdmissionJanuary 16, 1952
GovernorJosé G. Osuna Millán
SenatorsAlejandro González
Rafael Díaz
Fernando Castro Trenti
DeputiesFederal Deputies
• Víctor Manuel Galicia Ávila
• Humberto Lepe Lepe
• Óscar Martín Arce Paniagua
• Alejandro Bahena Flores
• Jesús Gerardo Cortez Mendoza
• Gastón Luken Garza
• César Mancillas Amador
• Francisco Javier Orduño Valdez
• Miguel Antonio Osuna Millán
• José Luis Ovando Patrón
• Sergio Tolento Hernández
• Francisco Arturo Vega De Lamadrid
• Eduardo Ledesma Romo
• Blanco Roberto Pérez de Alva
Total Area27063.6 sq mi (70113 km2)
Highest Elevation10170.6 ft (3100 m)
Lowest Elevation0 ft (0 m)
Total Population3155070 (14th) (2010)
Density (pop.)auto/km2 (19th) (0/sq mi)
Other information
Time zonePST (UTC-8)
- Summer (DST)PDT  (UTC-7)
Postal code21, 22
Area codeArea codes
• 615
• 616
• 646
• 653
• 658
• 661
• 664
• 665
• 686
ISO 3166 codeMX-BCN
HDI(+) 0.868 high Ranked 4th
GDPUS$ 23.03 billion. 

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Baja California (-esˈbaxa kaliˈfornja, -enˈbɑːhɑː kælɨˈfɔrnjəlang) officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California ( ) is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is both the northernmost and westernmost state of Mexico. Before becoming a state in 1953, the area was known as the North Territory of Baja California. It has an area of 70113 km2 (27070.8 sqmi), or 3.57% of the land mass of Mexico and comprises the northern half of the Baja California peninsula, north of the 28th parallel. The state is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the east by Sonora, the U.S. State of Arizona, and the Gulf of California (also known as the Sea of Cortez), and on the south by Baja California Sur. Its northern limit is the U.S. state of California.

The state has a population of 2,844,469 (2005 census), and estimated 3,165,776 (June 2009) much more than the sparsely populated Baja California Sur to the south, and similar to San Diego County on its north. Over 75% of the population lives in the capital city, Mexicali, or in Ensenada and Tijuana. Other important cities include San Felipe, Rosarito and Tecate. The population of the state is composed of Mestizos, mostly immigrants from other parts of Mexico, and, as with most northern Mexican states, a large population of Mexicans of European ancestry, and also a large minority group of East Asian, Middle Eastern and indigenous descent. Additionally, there is a large immigrant population from the United States due to its proximity to San Diego and the cheaper cost of living compared to San Diego. There is also a significant population from Central America. Many immigrants moved to Baja California for a better quality of life and the number of higher paying jobs in comparison to the rest of Mexico and Latin America.

Baja California is the twelfth largest state by area in Mexico. Its geography ranges from beaches to forests and deserts. The backbone of the state is the Sierra de Baja California, where the Picacho del Diablo, the highest point of the peninsula, is located. This mountain range effectively divides the weather patterns in the state. In the northwest, the weather is semi-dry and mediterranean. In the narrow center, the weather changes to be more humid due to altitude. It is in this area where a few valleys can be found, such as the Valle de Guadalupe, the major wine producing area in Mexico. To the east of the mountain range, the Sonoran Desert dominates the landscape. In the south, the weather becomes drier and gives way to the Vizcaino Desert. The state is also home to numerous islands off both of its shores. In fact, the westernmost point in Mexico, the Guadalupe Island, is part of Baja California. The Coronado, Todos Santos and Cedros Islands are also on the Pacific Shore. On the Gulf of California, the biggest island is the Angel de la Guarda, separated from the peninsula by the deep and narrow Canal de Ballenas.

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