Sonora (-esso̞ˈno̞ɾa) officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora ( ) is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 72 municipalities and its capital city is Hermosillo.
It is located in Northwestern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it has a long line with the U.S.-Mexico border adjacent to the U.S. states of Arizona and New Mexico. To the west, it has a significant share of coastline on the Gulf of California.
Its natural geography is divided into three parts: the Sierra Madre Occidental in the east of the state, plains and rolling hills in the center and the coast on the Gulf of California. Almost all of the state is arid or semi-arid covered in deserts and arid grasslands. Only the highest elevations of the state have sufficient rainfall to support other types of vegetation. The state is home to eight indigenous peoples, including the Mayo, the Yaqui and the Seri.
The state has been economically important for its agriculture, livestock (especially beef) and mining since the colonial period, and for its status as a border state since the Mexican American War. After, via Gadsden Purchase, the state lost more than a quarter of its territory. From the 20th century to the present, industry, tourism and large agribusiness have dominated the economy, attracting migration into the state from other parts of Mexico.