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Xinjiang

Xinjiang
ChineseName新疆维吾尔自治区
PinyinXīnjiāng Wéiwú'ěr Zìzhìqū
EnglishNameXinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
LocalName 
LocalTranscription1Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni
LocalLanguage1Uyghur
LocalLanguage2Uyghur
DesignatedMinorityUyghur
Abbreviation
AbbrevPinyinXīn
ISOAbbrev65
NameXinjiang
MapSize275px
OriginOfName新 xīn new
疆 jiāng frontier
"new frontier"
AdministrationTypeAutonomous region
CapitalÜrümqi
LargestCityÜrümqi
SecretaryZhang Chunxian (张春贤)
GovernorNur Bekri (نۇر بەكرى or 努尔•白克力)
Area Km21660001
AreaRank1st
Latitude35° 14' to 49° 11' N
Longitude073° 30' to 096° 23' E
PopYear2010
Pop21,813,334
PopRank25th
PopDensity Km213
PopDensityRank29th
GDPYear2010
GDP541.2 billion (US$80.04 billion)
GDPRank25th
GDPperCapita19,798 (US $3,038)
GDPperCapitaRank21st
HDIYear2008
HDI0.774
HDIRank21st
HDICatmedium
NationalitiesUyghur 45%
Han 41%
Kazakh 7%
Hui 5%
Kyrgyz 0.9%
Mongol 0.8%
Dongxiang 0.3%
Pamiris 0.2%
Xibe 0.2%
Prefectures14
Counties99
Townships1005
Websitehttp://www.xinjiang.gov.cn (Various languages)

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Xinjiang ( ; -cmnɕíntɕjɑ́ŋ; ; Postal map spelling: Sinkiang) is an autonomous region (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous RegionXinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni in SASM/GNC romanization) of the People's Republic of China. It is the largest Chinese administrative division and spans over 1.6 million km2. Xinjiang borders Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India, has abundant oil reserves and is China's largest natural gas-producing region.Xinjiang was previously known as Xiyu (西域) or Qurighar (غەربىي دىيار), meaning Western Region, under the Han Dynasty, which drove the Xiongnu empire out of the region in 60 BCE. This was in an effort to secure the profitable Silk Road. The name "Xinjiang", which literally means "New Frontier" or "New Border", was given during the Qing Dynasty. It is home to a number of different ethnic groups including the Uyghur, Han, Kazakh, Hui, Kyrgyz and Mongol. Older English-language reference works often refer to the area as Chinese Turkestan, Sinkiang and East Turkestan. Xinjiang is divided into the Dzungarian Basin in the north and the Tarim Basin in the south by a mountain range. Only about 4.3% of Xinjiang's land area is fit for human habitation.

With a documented history of at least 2,500 years, there have been a succession of different peoples and empires vying for control over all or parts of these territories. Prior to the 21st century, all or part of the region has been ruled or influenced at various times by the Yuezhi, Xiongnu Empire, Kushan Empire, Han Empire, Former Liang, Former Qin, Later Liang, Western Liáng, Tang Dynasty, Uyghur Khaganate, Kara-Khanid Khanate, Mongol Empire (Yuan Dynasty), Dzungar Khanate, Qing Dynasty, Republic of China and since 1949 People's Republic of China.


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