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Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan
General information
Common nameKyrgyzstan
Local nameКыргыз Республикасы
Kirgiz Respublikası
NameКыргыз Республикасы
Kirgiz Respublikası
AnthemKyrgyz Respublikasynyn Mamlekettik Gimni
National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic
CapitalBishkek
Largest citycapital
Official languagesKyrgyz (State)
Russian (official)
Ethnic groups68.9% Kyrgyz
14.4% Uzbek
9.1% Russian
7.6% others
DemonymKyrgyz
Kyrgyzstani
Government
GovernmentParliamentary republic
PresidentRoza Otunbayeva
Acting Prime MinisterOmurbek Babanov
IndependenceIndependence (from the Soviet Union)
Established14 October 1924
Kirghiz SSR5 December 1936
Declared31 August 1991
Completed25 December 1991
Geography
Total Area77181 sq mi (199898.8 km2) (86th)
Water %3.6
Demography
Population Est.5482000 (110th)
Population census4896100 (1999)
Density (pop.)27.4/km2 (176th) (71/sq mi)
Economy
GDP PPP$12.016 billion (2010)
GDP (PPP) per capita$2,248
GDP (nominal)$4.615 billion (2010)
GDP (nominal) per capita$863
Other information
Gini30.3 (2003) (medium)
HDI(+) 0.598 (2010) (medium) (109th)
CurrencySom (KGS)
Time zoneKGT (UTC+6)
Drives on theright
Internet TLD.kg
Calling code996

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Kyrgyzstan (c-eniconˈkɜrɡɨstæn ; Kyrgyz & , Kyrgyzstan, or , Kirgiziya), officially the Kyrgyz Republic is one of the world's six independent Turkic states (along with Turkey, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan). Located in Central Asia, landlocked and mountainous, Kyrgyzstan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the southwest and People's Republic of China to the east. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek.

"Kyrgyz" is believed to have been derived from the Turkic word for "forty", in reference to the forty clans of Manas, a legendary hero who united forty regional clans against the Uyghers. Literally it means We are forty. At the time, in the early 9th century AD, the Uyghers dominated much of Central Asia (including Kyrgyzstan), Mongolia, and parts of Russia and China.

By extension, Kyrgyz is also thought to mean "unconquerable" or "undefeatable".

The 40-ray sun on the flag of Kyrgyzstan is a reference to those same forty tribes and the graphical element in the sun's center depicts the wooden crown of a yurt a portable dwelling traditionally used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia.


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