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General information
Common nameMongolia
Local name
Mongγol ulus
Монгол улс
Mongol uls
Mongγol ulus
Монгол улс
Mongol uls
Anthem"Монгол улсын төрийн дуулал"
National anthem of Mongolia
CapitalUlan Bator
Largest citycapital
Official languagesMongolian
Official script(s)Mongolian Cyrillic
Mongolian script
Ethnic groups95.35% Mongol,
3.86% Kazakh
0.8% others (2010)
DemonymMongol, Mongolian
GovernmentParliamentary republic
PresidentTsakhiagiin Elbegdorj
Prime MinisterSükhbaataryn Batbold
LegislatureState Great Khural
Formation of the Hunnic Empire209 BC
Formation of the Mongol Empire1206
Independence declared (from Qing Dynasty)December 29, 1911
Total Area603909 sq mi (1564124.3 km2) (19th)
Water %0.43
Population census2754685 (2010)
Density (pop.)1.9/km2 (236th) (5.03/sq mi)
GDP PPP$11.018 billion (2010)
GDP (PPP) per capita$4,006
GDP (nominal)$6.125 billion (2010)
GDP (nominal) per capita$2,227
Other information
Gini32.8 (2002) (medium)
HDI(+) 0.622 (2010) (medium) (100th)
CurrencyTögrög (MNT)
Date (CE)
Drives on theright
Calling code976

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Mongolia c-enaudio=En-us-Mongolia.oggmɒŋˈɡoʊliə () is a landlocked country in East and Central Asia. It is bordered by Russia to the north and the People's Republic of China to the south, east and west. Although Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan, its western-most point is only 38 km (23.6 mi) from Kazakhstan's eastern tip. Ulan Bator, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the population. Mongolia's political system is a parliamentary republic.

The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Gökturks and others. The Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan in 1206. After the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongols returned to their earlier pattern of constant internal conflict and occasional raids on the Chinese borderlands. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Mongolia came under the influence of Tibetan Buddhism. At the end of the 17th century, most of Mongolia had been incorporated into the area ruled by the Qing Dynasty. During the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence, but had to struggle until 1921 to firmly establish de facto independence from the Republic of China, and until 1945 to gain international recognition.

As a consequence, it came under strong Russian and Soviet influence; in 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was declared, and Mongolian politics began to follow the same patterns as the Soviet politics of the time. After the breakdown of communist regimes in Eastern Europe in late 1989, Mongolia saw its own Democratic Revolution in early 1990, which led to a multi-party system, a new constitution in 1992, and transition to a market economy.

At 1564116 km2 (971896.6 mi), Mongolia is the 19th largest and the most sparsely populated independent country in the world, with a population of around 2.75 million people. It is also the world's second-largest landlocked country after Kazakhstan. The country contains very little arable land, as much of its area is covered by steppes, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Approximately 30% of the population are nomadic or semi-nomadic. The predominant religion in Mongolia is Tibetan Buddhism, and the majority of the state's citizens are of the Mongol ethnicity, though Kazakhs, Tuvans, and other minorities also live in the country, especially in the west. About 20% of the population live on less than US$1.25 per day. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade regimes.

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