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Spanish � American War

Charge of the Rough Riders at San Juan Hill, by Frederic Remington
Military Conflict
ConflictSpanish � American War
DateApril 25 � August 12, 1898
LocationCuba, and Puerto Rico (Caribbean)
Philippines, and Guam (Asia-Pacific)
ResultDecisive United States victory
Treaty of Paris
Philippine � American War
Spain relinquishes sovereignty over Cuba, cedes the Philippine Islands, Puerto Rico, and Guam to the United States for the sum of $20 million.
US United States
Cuba Cuban Rebels
Puerto Rico Puerto Rican Rebels
Spain Spain
US William McKinley
US Nelson A. Miles
US William R. Shafter
US George Dewey
US William T. Sampson
Cuba Máximo Gómez
Emilio Aguinaldo
Apolinario Mabini
USTheodore Roosevelt
Spain Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
Spain Patricio Montojo
Spain Pascual Cervera
Spain Arsenio Linares y Pombo
Spain Manuel Macías y Casado
Spain Ramón Blanco y Erenas
Cuban Republic:
:30,000 irregulars  United States:
:300,000 regulars and volunteers 
Spanish Army:
278,447 regulars and militia  (Cuba),
10,005 regulars and militia  (Puerto Rico),
51,331 regulars and militia  (Philippines)
Cuban Republic:
:10,665 dead  United States Army:
:3,045 dead, :1,577 wounded, :2,565 diseased  United States Navy:
:16 dead, :68 wounded 
Spanish Navy:
:560 dead, :300 � 400 wounded  Spanish Army:
:3,000 dead or wounded :6,700 captured,(Philippines) :13,000 diseased (Cuba)

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The Spanish � American War was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States. It ended with the Americans defeating the Spaniards. Revolts against Spanish rule had been endemic for decades in Cuba and were closely watched by Americans; there had been war scares before, as in the Virginius Affair in 1873. By 1897 � 98, American public opinion grew angrier at reports of Spanish atrocities. After the mysterious sinking of the American battleship in Havana harbor, political pressures from the Democratic Party pushed the government of President William McKinley, a Republican, into a war McKinley had wished to avoid. Compromise proved impossible, resulting in an ultimatum sent to Madrid demanding it surrender control of Cuba immediately, which was not accepted. First Madrid, then Washington, formally declared war.

Although the main issue was Cuban independence, the ten-week war was fought in both the Caribbean and the Pacific. A series of one-sided American naval and military victories followed on all fronts, owing to their numerical superiority in most of the battles and despite the good performance of some of the Spanish infantry units. The result was the 1898 Treaty of Paris-which was favorable to the U.S.-followed by temporary American control of Cuba and indefinite colonial authority over Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines. The defeat and the collapse of the Spanish Empire was a profound shock to Spain's national psyche. The victor gained several island possessions spanning the globe and a rancorous new debate over the wisdom of imperialism.

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