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General information
Common namePeru
Local name 
Anthem"Himno Nacional del Perú 
"National Anthem of Peru"
Largest citycapital
Official languagesSpanish
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
PresidentOllanta Humala
Prime MinisterSalomon Lerner Ghitis
IndependenceIndependence (from Spain)
DeclaredJuly 28, 1821
ConsolidatedDecember 9, 1824
RecognizedAugust 14, 1879
Total Area496225 sq mi (1285222.8 km2) (20th)
Water %0.41
Population Est.29496000 (40th)
Population census28220764 (2007)
Density (pop.)22/km2 (191st) (57/sq mi)
GDP PPP$299.648 billion (2011)
GDP (PPP) per capita$9,985
GDP (nominal)$167.846 billion (2011)
GDP (nominal) per capita$5,593
Other information
Gini48 (2009) (high)
HDI(+)0.723 (2010) (high) (63rd)
CurrencyNuevo Sol (PEN)
Time zonePET (UTC-5)
- Summer (DST)not observed (UTC)
Drives on theright
Calling code+51

     Home | Country | Peru

Peru c-enaudio=en-us-Peru.oggpəˈruː ( ; ; ), officially the Republic of Peru ( , -esreˈpuβlika ðel peˈɾupronEs - República del Perú, is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean.

Peruvian territory was home to the Norte Chico civilization, one of the oldest in the world, and to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty, which included most of its South American colonies. After achieving independence in 1821, Peru has undergone periods of political unrest and fiscal crisis as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.

Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. Its geography varies from the arid plains of the Pacific coast to the peaks of the Andes Mountains and the tropical forests of the Amazon Basin. It is a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 31%. Its main economic activities include agriculture, fishing, mining, and manufacturing of products such as textiles.

The Peruvian population, estimated at 29.5 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans, and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.

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