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     Home | battery | Lithium-ion battery

A lithium-ion battery (sometimes Li-ion battery or LIB) is a family of rechargeable battery types in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge, and back when charging. Chemistry, performance, cost, and safety characteristics vary across LIB types. Unlike lithium primary batteries (which are disposable), lithium-ion electrochemical cells use an intercalated lithium compound as the electrode material instead of metallic lithium.

Lithium-ion batteries are common in consumer electronics. They are one of the most popular types of rechargeable battery for portable electronics, with one of the best energy densities, no memory effect, and a slow loss of charge when not in use. Beyond consumer electronics, LIBs are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. Research is yielding a stream of improvements to traditional LIB technology, focusing on energy density, durability, cost, and intrinsic safety.

Lithium-ion batteries account for 67% of all portable secondary battery sales in Japan. In the UK lithium-ion batteries account for 4.3% of all portable battery sales and in the EU 1%.

Lithium-ion battery Video

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4.92 min. | 4.66 user rating
The 86V electric scooter project began as an effort to convert a downhill scooter (Dellemann ) to a electric powered scooter. Downhill scooters, commonly referred to as TrottiBikes in Switzerland, are used on ski-slopes (and access roads) in the summer. They're available at many cable-car or train stations to rent in all alpine regions. You take a cable car or train up an alp, and scoot down. This effort is to allow electric hub-motor braking, regenerating power, as well as providing a electrical means of transport. Advantages of a Scooter: The scooter is more advantageous over bikes because of their compact size, and ability to travel in less dimensional space than regular bikes. While the scooters are stand-up versions, their simplicity make up for any small discomforts compared to sit-down versions of transportation. Unlike a Segway, these scooters are inexpensive, simple to use, maintain and repair. Lithium Ion Power: For power, a battery pack is placed in a backpack which the user wears. The battery pack is comprised of a series of Milwaukee V28 Lithium Ion Batteries. The resulting power is fantastic in terms of performance, and very lightweight. For more details on the conversion, please visit my website: See also Pepe / 2007
0.77 min. | 3.58 user rating
Great for motorycycles, electric cars, boats, wheelchairs, etc. Charges in less time and weighs a fraction of Lead Acid Batteries. Can be purchased at
8.00 min. | 3.97 user rating
Instructable : Dell Laptop battery pack repair. How to replace laptop 18650 lithium ion cells. Save approx. $90 with this rebuild
6.42 min. | 3.84 user rating
Reuters (Chicago) reports the following news about Lithium Ion Batteries. This will be a big boon for the RC Modelers too! Let's hope the manufacturers decide to do it. Here is the link to read more about it at Reuters Thanks for watching and Subscribing. Dave
3.63 min. | 4.26 user rating
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. today unveiled Nissan LEAF, the world's first affordable, zero-emission car. Designed specifically for a lithium-ion battery-powered chassis, Nissan LEAF is a medium-size hatchback that comfortably seats five adults and has a range of more than 160km (100 miles) to satisfy real-world consumer requirements. Get the complete story on all alt fuels and vehicles at
4.10 min. | 4.27 user rating tests out the latest Li-Ion battery from Dewalt. These batteries can be charged 2000 times and have no "memory effect".
8.52 min. | 4.98 user rating
New Hilti SFH-18A - 18V Lithium Ion Drill Driver 750 in-lbs of Torque (Industry Leading - All Competitive Voltages including 36V !!!) 3 Speed Gearing - Select the right gearing for the right application 39400 Blows Per Minute - Flies through masonry and concrete 2 Year Tool and Battery Warranty - Free Batteries !!!!
1.32 min. | 4.76 user rating In a rare collaboration between public and private sectors, the City of Los Angeles Police Department⢠(LAPD) has partnered with Pelican Products to develop the Pelican 7060 LED flashlight as the standard issue tactical flashlight for all its officers. The Pelican 7060 LED flashlight employs new dual switch technology that allows the light to be activated by either a body-mounted patrol switch or a tail-mounted tactical switch. The dual switches, which include a momentary mode, allows the user to grip the LED flashlight in several positions and still control activation. The LED flashlight incorporates rechargeable Lithium-Ion batteries for maximum brightness and are also light weight compared to standard batteries. For more information on our 7060 LED flashlight, be sure to check out http
3.05 min. | 4.65 user rating
Ultimate fuel economy: An all-electric SUV from Phoenix Motorcars has a 138 mile range, a top speed of 95 mph and it recharges in as little as ten minutes. The secret: Nano-materials that keep next-gen lithium-ion batteries from overheating -- and give them a long life. For more videos from Popular Mechanics visit: Everything from the World of Popular Mechanics: Subscribe to Popular Mechanics: -
2.27 min. | 4.97 user rating

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Electric cars a scam - Dallas Morning News Tweet this news
Dallas Morning News--"Volt engineers are now admitting that when the vehicle's -lithium-ion battery- pack runs down and at speeds near or above 70 mph, the Volt's gasoline engine ... - Date : Sun, 31 Oct 2010 05:08:55 GMT+00:00
GM IPO to sell $10 billion of common stock: sources - Tweet this news Motors Chairman and CEO Ed Whitacre talks about the first assembled -lithium-ion battery- for the Chevrolet Volt electric vehicle during a news ... - Date : Mon, 01 Nov 2010 20:27:40 GMT+00:00
Mixed Greens: Ener1 Lands Huge Storage Deal in Russia and More for SunPower - Greentech Media (blog) Tweet this news
Greentech Media (blog)--The grid storage division of Ener1, the -lithium ion battery- maker, has landed a contract with Russia's Federal Energ Corporation (FRC) to design and build ... - Date : Mon, 01 Nov 2010 18:44:41 GMT+00:00
Blast's 2010 Holiday Automotive Gift Guide - Blast Tweet this news
Blast--The Blade comes equipped with a 130-Lumen high-efficiency long-lasting CREE LED, -lithium-ion battery-, that is recharged by either USB or AC with both ... - Date : Mon, 01 Nov 2010 14:46:23 GMT+00:00
Award-winning Li-ion Motors Unveils INIZIO EV Super Car at SEMA - Autochannel (press release) Tweet this news
Autochannel (press release)--Engineered with Li-ion Motors' patent-pending -lithium-ion battery- technology and management system, the INIZIO is a full-sized super car that has a range of ... - Date : Mon, 01 Nov 2010 20:11:39 GMT+00:00
A-Solar Charger Doubles Battery Capacity for iPhone - Solar Novus Today (blog) Tweet this news
Solar Novus Today (blog)---...- has developed a series of Apple-licensed iPhone solar chargers equipped with energy-efficient solar cells that can recharge the -lithium-ion battery-. ... - Date : Mon, 01 Nov 2010 17:26:20 GMT+00:00

Positive electrodes :
Electrode material Average potential difference Specific capacity Specific energy
  3.7 V 140 mA·h/g 0.518 kW·h/kg
  4.0 V 100 mA·h/g 0.400 kW·h/kg
  3.5 V 180 mA·h/g 0.630 kW·h/kg
  3.3 V 150 mA·h/g 0.495 kW·h/kg
  3.6 V 115 mA·h/g 0.414 kW·h/kg
  3.6 V 160 mA·h/g 0.576 kW·h/kg
Li( )  4.2 V 220 mA·h/g 0.920 kW·h/kg

Negative electrodes :
Electrode material Average potential difference Specific capacity Specific energy
Graphite ( ) 0.1-0.2 V 372 mA·h/g 0.0372-0.0744 kW·h/kg
Hard Carbon ( ) ? V ? mA·h/g ? kW·h/kg
Titanate ( ) 1-2 V 160 mA·h/g 0.16-0.32 kW·h/kg
Si ( ) 0.5-1 V 4212 mA·h/g 2.106-4.212 kW·h/kg
Ge ( ) 0.7-1.2 V 1624 mA·h/g 1.137-1.949 kW·h/kg

LIB types
Disadvantages : Safety requirements
Area Technology Researchers Target application Date Benefit
Cathode Manganese spinel (LMO) Lucky Goldstar Chemical, NEC, Samsung, Hitachi, Nissan/AESC Hybrid electric vehicle, cell phone, laptop 1996 durability, cost
  Lithium iron phosphate University of Texas/Hydro-Québec,/Phostech Lithium Inc., Valence Technology, A123Systems/MIT Segway Personal Transporter, power tools, aviation products, automotive hybrid systems, PHEV conversions 1996 moderate density (2 A·h outputs 70 amperes) operating temperature >60 C (165.6 F)
  Lithium nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) Imara Corporation, Nissan Motor 2008 density, output, safety
  LMO/NMC Sony, Sanyo power, safety (although limited durability)
  Lithium iron fluorophosphate University of Waterloo 2007 durability, cost (replace Li with Na or Na/Li)
  Lithium air University of Dayton Research Institute automotive 2009 density, safety
  5% Vanadium-doped Lithium iron phosphate olivine Binghamton University 2008 output
Anode Lithium-titanate battery (LT) Altairnano automotive (Phoenix Motorcars), electrical grid (PJM Interconnection Regional Transmission Organization control area, United States Department of Defense), bus (Proterra) 2008 output, charging time, durability (20 years, 9,000 cycles), safety, operating temperature (-50 - 70 C 
  Lithium vanadium oxide Samsung/Subaru. automotive 2007 density (745Wh/l)
  Cobalt-oxide nano wires from genetically modified virus MIT 2006 density, thickness
  Three-Dimensional (3D) Porous Particles Composed of Curved Two-Dimensional (2D) Nano-Sized Layers Georgia Institute of Technology high energy batteries for electronics and electrical vehicles 2011 specific capacity > 2000 mA·h/g, high efficiency, rapid low-cost synthesis
  Iron-phosphate nano wires from genetically modified virus MIT 2009 density, thickness
  Silicon/titanium dioxide composite nano wires from genetically modified tobacco virus University of Maryland explosive detection sensors, biomimetic structures, water-repellent surfaces, micro/nano scale heat pipes 2010 density, low charge time
  Porous silicon/carbon nanocomposite spheres Georgia Institute of Technology portable electronics, electrical vehicles, electrical grid 2010 high stability, high capacity, low charge time
  nano-sized wires on stainless steel Stanford University wireless sensors networks, 2007 density (shift from anode- to cathode-limited), durability issue remains (wire cracking)
  Metal hydrides Laboratoire de Réactivité et de Chimie des Solides, General Motors 2008 density (1480 mA·h/g)
  Silicon Nanotubes (or Silicon Nanospheres) Confined within Rigid Carbon Outer Shells Georgia Institute of Technology, MSE, NanoTech Yushin's group stable high energy batteries for cell phones, laptops, netbooks, radios, sensors and electrical vehicles 2010 specific capacity 2400 mA·h/g, ultra-high Coulombic Efficiency and outstanding SEI stability
Electrode LT/LMO Ener1/Delphi, 2006 durability, safety (limited density)
  Nanostructure Université Paul Sabatier/Université Picardie Jules Verne 2006 density

Galvanic cells

primary cells
Alkaline battery * Aluminium battery * Bunsen cell * Chromic acid cell * Clark cell * Daniell cell * Dry cell * Grove cell * Leclanché cell * Lithium battery * Mercury battery * Nickel oxyhydroxide battery * Silver-oxide battery * Weston cell * Zamboni pile * Zinc-air battery * Zinc-carbon battery
secondary cells
Lead-acid battery * Lithium air battery * Lithium-ion battery * Lithium-ion polymer battery * Lithium iron phosphate battery * Lithium sulfur battery * Lithium-titanate battery * Nickel-cadmium battery * Nickel hydrogen battery * Nickel-iron battery * Nickel-metal hydride battery * Low self-discharge NiMH battery * Nickel-zinc battery * Rechargeable alkaline battery * Sodium-sulfur battery * Vanadium redox battery * Zinc-bromine battery
Kinds of cellsBattery * Concentration cell * Flow battery * Fuel cell * Trough battery * Voltaic pile
Parts of cellsAnode * Catalyst * Cathode * Electrolyte * Half cell * Ions * Salt bridge * Semipermeable membrane

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