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Hungary

Hungary
General information
Common nameHungary
Local name 
Name 
AnthemHimnusz
"Hymn"
CapitalBudapest
Largest citycapital
Official languagesHungarian
Ethnic groups92.3% Hungarians,
1.9% Roma,
5.8% others and unspecified  (2001)
DemonymHungarian
Government
GovernmentParliamentary republic
PresidentPál Schmitt (Fidesz)
Prime MinisterViktor Orbán (Fidesz)
Speaker of the National AssemblyLászló Kövér (Fidesz)
LegislatureOrszággyűlés
FoundationFoundation
Foundation of Hungary895
Recognized as Christian kingdom1000
Current 3rd republic23 October 1989
EU accession1 May 2004
Geography
Total Area35919 sq mi (93030.2 km2) (109th)
Water %0.74%
Demography
Population Est.9979000 (83rd)
Population census10198315 (2001)
Density (pop.)107.7/km2 (94th) (279.0/sq mi)
Economy
GDP PPP$187.627 billion (2010)
GDP (PPP) per capita$18,738
GDP (nominal)$128.960 billion (2010)
GDP (nominal) per capita$12,879
Other information
Gini24.96 (2008) (low) (3rd)
HDI(+) 0.805 (2010) (very high) (36th)
CurrencyForint (HUF)
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
- Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
Date formatsyyyy.mm.dd,
yyyy. .dd (CE)
Drives on theright
Internet TLD.hu1
Calling code36

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Hungary c-enaudio=en-us-Hungary.oggˈhʌŋɡəri ( -huˈmɒɟɒrorsaːɡhu-Magyarország, officially the Republic of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Köztársaság ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The capital and largest city is Budapest. Hungary is a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the Visegrád Group, and is a Schengen state. The official language is Hungarian, also known as Magyar, which is part of the Uralic family and is the most widely spoken non-Indo-European language in Europe.

Following a Celtic (after c. 450 BCE) and a Roman (9 CE c. 430 CE) period, the foundation of Hungary was laid in the late 9th century by the Hungarian ruler Árpád, whose great-grandson Saint Stephen I was crowned with a crown sent by the pope from Rome in 1000 AD. The Kingdom of Hungary lasted for 946 years, and at various points was regarded as one of the cultural centres of the Western world. After about 150 years of partial Ottoman occupation (1541 1699), Hungary was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy, and later constituted half of the Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy (1867 1918).

A great power until the end of World War I, Hungary lost over 70 percent of its territory, along with one third of its ethnic population, and all its sea ports under the Treaty of Trianon, the terms of which have been considered excessively harsh by many in Hungary. The kingdom was succeeded by a Fascist regime, and then a Communist era (1947 1989) during which Hungary gained widespread international attention during the Revolution of 1956 and the seminal opening of its border with Austria in 1989, thus accelerating the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. The present form of government is a parliamentary republic, which was established in 1989. Today, Hungary is a high-income economy and a regional leader in some respects.

Hungary is one of the thirty most popular tourist destinations of the world, attracting 8.6 million tourists a year (2007). The country is home to the largest thermal water cave system and the second largest thermal lake in the world (Lake Hévíz), the largest lake in Central Europe (Lake Balaton), and the largest natural grasslands in Europe (Hortobágy).


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