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Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan
General information
Common nameUzbekistan
Local nameO‘zbekiston Respublikasi
Ўзбекистон Республикаси
O'zbekstan Respublikası
NameO‘zbekiston Respublikasi
Ўзбекистон Республикаси
O'zbekstan Respublikası
AnthemNational Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan
"O‘zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi"
CapitalTashkent
Largest cityTashkent
Official languagesUzbek
Regional languagesKarakalpak
Language for inter-ethnic
communication
Russian
Ethnic groups80.0% Uzbek
5.5% Russian
5.0% 5.5% (Official Uzbek Statistics), (30% Foltz, Cordell, Jonson) Tajik
3.0% Kazakh
2.5% Karakalpak
1.5% Tatar
2.5% Others
DemonymUzbek
Government
GovernmentPresidential Republic
PresidentIslam Karimov
Prime MinisterShavkat Mirziyoyev
IndependenceIndependence (from the Soviet Union)
Formation17471
Uzbek SSROctober 27, 1924
DeclaredSeptember 1, 1991
RecognizedDecember 8, 1991
CompletedDecember 25, 1991
Geography
Total Area172742 sq mi (447401.8 km2) (56th)
Water %4.9
Demography
Population Est.27606007 (45th)
Density (pop.)61.4/km2 (136th) (159.1/sq mi)
Economy
GDP PPP$85.188 billion (2010)
GDP (PPP) per capita$3,015
GDP (nominal)$37.290 billion (2010)
GDP (nominal) per capita$1,320
Other information
Gini26.8 (-) 0.21 (2000) (low) (95th)
HDI(+) 0.617 (2010) (medium) (102nd)
CurrencyUzbekistan som (O'zbekiston so'mi) (UZS)
Time zoneUZT (UTC+5)
- Summer (DST)not observed (UTC+5)
Drives on theright
Internet TLD.uz
Calling code998

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Uzbekistan c-enaudio=en-us-Uzbekistan.oggʊzˌbɛkɨˈstɑːn, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( ‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси, Üzbekiston Respublikasi) is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia and one of the six independent Turkic states. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south. Prior to 1991, it was part of the Soviet Union. Uzbekistan is an observing member of the Turkic Council.

Once part of the Persian Samanid and later Timurid empires, the region was conquered in the early 16th century by Uzbek nomads, who spoke an Eastern Turkic language. Most of Uzbekistan’s population today belong to the Uzbek ethnic group and speak the Uzbek language, one of the family of Turkic languages.

Uzbekistan was incorporated into the Russian Empire in the 19th century and in 1924 became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, known as the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Uzbek SSR). It has been an independent republic since December 1991.

Uzbekistan's economy relies mainly on commodity production, including cotton, gold, uranium, potassium, and natural gas. Despite the declared objective of transition to a market economy, Uzbekistan continues to maintain rigid economic controls, which often repel foreign investors. The policy of gradual, strictly controlled transition has nevertheless produced beneficial results in the form of economic recovery after 1995. Uzbekistan's domestic policies on human rights and individual freedoms are often criticised by international organizations.


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