AskBiography Logo   Latest News  Follow Us on Twitter  Follow Us on Google Buzz  Became Fan - Facebook  Subscribe to RSSRSS   Bookmark and Share

Republic of China

General information
Common nameTaiwan
Local name  
Chunghwa Minkuo
Zhōnghuá Mínguó
Chunghwa Minkuo
Zhōnghuá Mínguó

National Anthem of the Republic of China

“National Flag Anthem”
Largest cityNew Taipei
Official languagesMandarin
Regional languagesTaiwanese Hokkien
Hakka Chinese
Formosan languages
Official scriptsTraditional Chinese
Ethnic groups98% Han
70% Hoklo
14% Hakka
14% Mainlanders
2% Taiwanese aborigines
DemonymTaiwanese or Chinese or both
GovernmentPresidential republic
PresidentMa Ying-jeou
Vice PresidentVincent Siew
PremierWu Den-yih
President of the Legislative YuanWang Jin-pyng
EstablishmentEstablishment (Hsin-hai Revolution)
Wuchang Uprising10 October 1911
Republic established1 January 1912
End of Japanese rule in Taiwan25 October 1945
Constitution25 December 1947
Government relocated to Taipei7 December 1949
Withdrawal from the UN25 October 1971
First direct presidential election23 March 1996
Total Area13973.6 sq mi (36191.6 km2) (136th)
Water %10.34
Population Est.23,174,528  (49th)
Density (pop.)640/km2 (16th) (1658/sq mi)
GDP PPP$824,671 billion (2010) (19th)
GDP (PPP) per capita$35,604 (20th)
GDP (nominal)$418.206 billion (2010) (24th)
GDP (nominal) per capita$18,558 (37th)
Other information
Gini34.1 (2008) (medium)
HDI(+) 0.868* (2010) ( )
CurrencyNew Taiwan dollar (NT$) (TWD)
Time zoneCST (UTC+8)
- Summer (DST)not observed (UTC+8)
Date formatsyyyy-mm-dd
(CE; CE+2697) or 民國yy年m月d日
Drives on theright
Internet, .台灣, .台湾
Calling code+886

     Home | Country | Taiwan

The Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as Taiwan (see below), is a sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan (Formosa), which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor islands. Neighboring states include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the west, Japan to the east and northeast, and the Philippines to the south. Its capital city is Taipei.

The Republic of China, established in mainland China in 1912, is the oldest surviving republic in East Asia. As the legal successor state of the Qing dynasty, most of mainland China was governed by the Republic of China (without the island of Taiwan, which was under Japanese rule) after the Chiang Kai-shek-led Kuomintang reunified China in 1928. Taiwan and accompanying islands were subsequently surrendered to Republic of China rule from the Empire of Japan at the end of World War II in late 1945, when both mainland China and Taiwan came under the ROC rule for four years until 1949.

Since the ROC's loss of its mainland territory following the Chinese Civil War and the founding of the Chinese Communist Party-led People's Republic of China (PRC) on mainland China in 1949, the ROC and the PRC have been claiming to represent all of "China" respectively, and both officially claim each other's territory. The PRC claims to be the successor state of the ROC and therefore claims Taiwan and other ROC-held areas as part of its territory which, along with mainland China, under Chinese sovereignty. Similarly, the ROC also officially claims sovereignty over "all China" under its constitution; although in practice, the ROC government has ceased to actively pursue this stance since 1992. This ongoing dispute over the claim and legitimacy of "China" and also the sovereignty over Taiwan is a lingering issue from the unresolved Chinese Civil War which forms part of the complex political status of Taiwan. The tension between the two Chinas colors most of the political life in Taiwan, and any move towards "Taiwan independence" is met by threat of military attack from the PRC. The PRC's official policy is to reunify Taiwan and mainland China under the formula of "one country, two systems" and refuses to renounce the use of military force, especially should Taiwan seek a declaration of independence.

The political environment in Taiwan is generally divided into two major camps in terms of views on how Taiwan/Republic of China should relate to PRC/Mainland China, which is referred to as Cross-Strait relations, is a main political discrepancy between two camps: the Pan-Blue Coalition (majority Kuomintang) believes that the ROC is the sole legitimate government of "China" but supports eventual Chinese reunification under the terms of 1992 Consensus, which defines the One China Principle. The opposition Pan-Green Coalition (majority Democratic Progressive Party) regards Taiwan as an independent, sovereign state synonymous with the ROC, opposes the notion that Taiwan is part of "China", and seeks wide diplomatic recognition and an eventual declaration of formal Taiwan independence.

A single-party state under the Kuomintang lasting from 1928, in the 1980s and 1990s the Republic of China evolved into a multi-party democracy. It has a presidential system and universal suffrage. The president serves as the head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The Legislative Yuan is the ROC's unicameral legislature. During the latter half of the twentieth century, the Republic of China on Taiwan experienced rapid economic growth, industrialization, and democratization. Despite of its controversial political status, the ROC is an industrialized advanced economy. It is a member of the WTO and APEC. It is one of the Four Asian Tigers. The 19th-largest economy in the world, its advanced technology industry plays a key role in the global economy. The ROC is ranked highly in terms of freedom of the press, health care, public education, economic freedom, and human development.

Warning: simplexml_load_file( [function.simplexml-load-file]: failed to open stream: HTTP request failed! HTTP/1.0 410 Gone in /home/askbio/public_html/index_bio.php on line 257

Warning: simplexml_load_file() [function.simplexml-load-file]: I/O warning : failed to load external entity "" in /home/askbio/public_html/index_bio.php on line 257

Fatal error: Call to a member function children() on a non-object in /home/askbio/public_html/index_bio.php on line 260