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General information
Common nameSyria
Local name 
AnthemHomat el Diyar
Guardians of the Land
Largest cityAleppo
Official languagesSyrian Arabic1
GovernmentDominant-party system
PresidentBashar al-Assad
LegislaturePeople's Council
From France17 April 1946
Total Area71479 sq mi (185130.6 km2) (88th)
Water %1.1
Population Est.22457763 (53rd)
Density (pop.)118.3/km2 (101st) (306.5/sq mi)
GDP PPP$105.238 billion (2011)
GDP (PPP) per capitaUS$5,043
GDP (nominal)US$60.210 billion (2010)
GDP (nominal) per capitaUS$2,958
Other information
HDI(+) 0.589 (2010) (medium) (111th)
CurrencySyrian pound (SYP)
Time zoneEET (UTC+2)
- Summer (DST)EEST (UTC+3)
Drives on theRight
Internet, سوريا.
Calling code9632

     Home | Country | Syria

Syria (-enˈsɪriəEn-us-Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

The name Syria formerly comprised the entire region of the Levant, while the modern state encompasses the site of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including the Eblan civilization of the third millennium BC. In the Islamic era, its capital city, Damascus, the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world, was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt.

The population of Syria is 74% Sunni Muslim, with a 13% Shia Muslim population, 10% Christian and 3% Druze. Combined, some 90% of the Syrian population is Muslim, which largely includes Arabs and significant minorities of Kurds and Circassians, while some 10% are Christians, which mainly includes ethnic Assyrians, but also Arab Christians and Armenians. The ethnic minorities include Kurdish (10%), Assyrian/Syriac, Armenian, Turkmen and Circassian populations, while the majority is Arab (90%).

The modern Syrian state was established as a French mandate and attained independence in April 1946, as a parliamentary republic. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949 � 1971. Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 � 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens, and its system of government is considered non-democratic. Bashar al-Assad is the current president, and was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, who was in office since 1971. The Syrian government is currently facing massive protests as part of the Arab Spring, and one government, that of Libya, has de-recognised it in favor of the opposition Syrian National Council.

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