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Louis XVI of France

Louis XVI by Antoine-François Callet
Issue
NameLouis XVI
King of France and Navarre
Reign10 May 1774 � 1 October 1791
( )
Coronation11 June 1775(age 20)
PredecessorLouis XV
SuccessorHimself as King of the French
King of the French
Reign1 October 1791 � 21 September 1792 (  days)
PredecessorHimself as King of France and Navarre
SuccessorMonarchy abolished
National Convention
ruling legislative body of the French First Republic
Louis XVII as the de jure successor and heir.
Next reigning monarch in France was Napoleon I starting 1804.
SpouseMarie Antoinette
Marie Thérèse, Queen of France and Navarre
Louis Joseph, Dauphin of France
Louis XVII of France
Princess Sophie
Full nameLouis Auguste de France
HouseHouse of Bourbon
FatherLouis, Dauphin of France
MotherMarie-Josèphe of Saxony
Date of birth23 August 1754
Place of birthPalace of Versailles, France
Date of death21 January 1793(age 38)
Place of deathParis, France
Date of burial21 January 1815
Place of burialSaint Denis Basilica, France
ReligionRoman Catholicism

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Louis XVI (23 August 1754 � 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. Suspended and arrested as part of the insurrection of 10 August during the French Revolution, he was tried by the National Convention, found guilty of high treason, and executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793 as "Citoyen Louis Capet". He is the only king of France ever to be executed.

Although Louis XVI was beloved at first, his indecisiveness and conservatism led some elements of the people of France to eventually view him as a symbol of the perceived tyranny of the Ancien Régime and gave him the nickname Oncle Louis ("Uncle Louis"). After the abolition of the monarchy in 1792, the new republican government gave him the surname Capet, a nickname in reference to Hugh Capet, the founder of the Capetian dynasty � which the revolutionaries interpreted as a family name.

Louis XVI of France Video

This is the third installment of the history series, Victims of History, featuring Louis XVI. I have received a few complaints about not being able to understand what is being said in the videos so I decided to adjust the voice synthesizer some. I also have another version of this video where there is no voice synthesizer applied at all except for the intro. *For future episodes I will have both versions available. Enjoy!
1.12 min. | 3.88 user rating
16 octobre 1793 : Marie-Antoinette vit sa dernière journée. A la Conciergerie, dans sa cellule, le bourreau et ses aides sont venus la préparer pour son exécution. 23 ans plus tôt, jeune princesse autrichienne, elle arrive en France sous les acclamations. Elle vient épouser le dauphin, Louis-Auguste, qui sera bientôt roi sous le nom de Louis XVI. A Versailles, la future reine de France, se trouve isolée, exposée aux hostilités diverses de la cour, auprès d'un mari distant. Il lui faudra sept longues années pour lui donner un premier enfant... Peut-être est-ce à cause de cela que Marie-Antoinette se réfugia dans un monde où seul son plaisir comptait ? On la disait dépensière, joueuse, et frivole sans doute pour échapper à une vie régie par trop de contraintes étouffantes. 23 ans plus tard, cette même femme, déchue de son titre de reine, est menée à la guillotine. Elle est vieillie avant l'âge. Ses cheveux sont gris. Les cris qui s'abattent maintenant sur elle sont des cris de haine. Que s'est-il passé ? Pourquoi cette mort ?
1.80 min. | 5.0 user rating
16 octobre 1793 : Marie-Antoinette vit sa dernière journée. A la Conciergerie, dans sa cellule, le bourreau et ses aides sont venus la préparer pour son exécution. 23 ans plus tôt, jeune princesse autrichienne, elle arrive en France sous les acclamations. Elle vient épouser le dauphin, Louis-Auguste, qui sera bientôt roi sous le nom de Louis XVI. A Versailles, la future reine de France, se trouve isolée, exposée aux hostilités diverses de la cour, auprès d'un mari distant. Il lui faudra sept longues années pour lui donner un premier enfant... Peut-être est-ce à cause de cela que Marie-Antoinette se réfugia dans un monde où seul son plaisir comptait ? On la disait dépensière, joueuse, et frivole sans doute pour échapper à une vie régie par trop de contraintes étouffantes. 23 ans plus tard, cette même femme, déchue de son titre de reine, est menée à la guillotine. Elle est vieillie avant l'âge. Ses cheveux sont gris. Les cris qui s'abattent maintenant sur elle sont des cris de haine. Que s'est-il passé ? Pourquoi cette mort ?
3.25 min. | 4.33 user rating
16 octobre 1793 : Marie-Antoinette vit sa dernière journée. A la Conciergerie, dans sa cellule, le bourreau et ses aides sont venus la préparer pour son exécution. 23 ans plus tôt, jeune princesse autrichienne, elle arrive en France sous les acclamations. Elle vient épouser le dauphin, Louis-Auguste, qui sera bientôt roi sous le nom de Louis XVI. A Versailles, la future reine de France, se trouve isolée, exposée aux hostilités diverses de la cour, auprès d'un mari distant. Il lui faudra sept longues années pour lui donner un premier enfant... Peut-être est-ce à cause de cela que Marie-Antoinette se réfugia dans un monde où seul son plaisir comptait ? On la disait dépensière, joueuse, et frivole sans doute pour échapper à une vie régie par trop de contraintes étouffantes. 23 ans plus tard, cette même femme, déchue de son titre de reine, est menée à la guillotine. Elle est vieillie avant l'âge. Ses cheveux sont gris. Les cris qui s'abattent maintenant sur elle sont des cris de haine. Que s'est-il passé ? Pourquoi cette mort ?
1.70 min. | 5.0 user rating
A short film of Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI - the legendary 'Royals of France" - making their annual appearance at the Venice Carnival.
2.82 min. | 4.2 user rating
A little lesson story I made. It has a good lesson. It was made for my sunday school lesson that I had to teach... Oh just watch the movie!
3.30 min. | 3.33 user rating
So that there is no question in the mind of the listener, I rely principally on images taken from the LP and the LP jacket to validate the authenticity of historical recordings such as this. In this 1954 recording, Carlo Maria Giulini (1914-2005) leads the Santa Cecilia Orchestra and Chorus in the Introitus et Kyrie of Luigi Cherubini's Requiem Mass in C minor (1815). I created this video from the LP depicted above, issued in 1954 on the Angel label, serial number 35042. Movement 1: Introitus et Kyrie Movements 2 and 3 - Graduale and Dies Irae: www.youtube.com Written in memory of Louis XVI of France (1816). The entire performance can be viewed here: www.youtube.com Das Requiem Nr. 1 in c-Moll für gemischten Chor und Orchester wurde 1816 vom italienischen Komponisten Luigi Cherubini zum Jahrestag der Hinrichtung von Ludwig XVI. komponiert. Die Uraufführung am 21. Januar 1817 war ein groÃer Erfolg, und das Werk wurde auch in späteren Jahrzehnten von Komponisten wie Brahms und Schumann bewundert. Ludwig van Beethoven, der Cherubini infolgedessen sehr verehrte, wünschte sich jenes Requiem bei seiner eigenen Beerdigung aufführen zu lassen. Auffallend sind die fehlenden Solopartien sowie die fehlenden hohen Orchesterstimmen im Introitus und Kyrie. Der damalige Erzbischof von Paris, Hyacinthe-Louis De Quelen, kritisierte 1834 das Werk, weil es auch Frauenstimmen verlangt, und untersagte eine Aufführung an einer Trauermesse in Paris. In der Folge komponierte der schon im hohen <b>...</b>
7.38 min. | 5.0 user rating
La Marquise de Pompadour, Madame de Pompadour, cette bourgeoise promue au rang de maîtresse royale par Louis XV, tient une place très particulière dans l'histoire des grandes favorites: c'est tout à la fois une amoureuse et une femme de pouvoir dont le "règne" a duré vingt ans. Elle séduit un monarque profondément dépressif. Mais elle comprend très vite que, pour durer, son ascendant doit s'exercer sur l'esprit du roi plûtot que sur ses sens. a mesure que s'étient le désir, son influence politique ne cesse grandir. En ce milieu de siécle ou la prééminence mondiale de France est en jeu, Madame de Pompadour, l' 'Amie nécessaire' de Louis XV, connaît le destin extraordinaire d'une maîtresse que ferait office d'épouse, de ministre et de thérapeute. EXTRAITE : Madame de Pompadour "The King's Favourite" GMT Productions 2008 (180 Minutes)
1.90 min. | 5.0 user rating
So that there is no question in the mind of the listener, I rely principally on images taken from the LP and the LP jacket to validate the authenticity of historical recordings such as this. In this 1954 recording, Carlo Maria Giulini (1914-2005) leads the Santa Cecilia Orchestra and Chorus in the Introitus et Kyrie of Luigi Cherubini's Requiem Mass in C minor (1815). I created this video from the LP depicted above, issued in 1954 on the Angel label, serial number 35042. Movement 2: Graduale Movement 3: Dies Irae (1:40) Movement 4: Offertoire - www.youtube.com Written in memory of Louis XVI of France (1816). The entire performance can be viewed here: www.youtube.com
14.52 min. | 5.0 user rating
The Hall of Mirrors (French: galerie des glaces) is the central gallery of the Palace of Versailles and is one of the most famous rooms in the world. As the principal and most remarkable feature of King Louis XIV of Frances third building campaign of the Palace of Versailles (1678-1684), construction of the Hall of Mirrors began in 1678 (Kimball, 1940; Nolhac, 1901; 1925; Marie, 1968; 1977; Verlet , 1985). To provide for the Hall of Mirrors as well as the salon de la guerre and the salon de la paix, which connect the grand appartement du roi with the grand appartement de la reine, architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart appropriated three rooms from each apartment as well as the terrace that separated the two apartments (Marie, 1968; 1977l Verlet, 1985a). The principal feature of this famous hall is the seventeen mirror-clad arches that reflect the seventeen arcaded windows that overlook the gardens. Each arch contains twenty-one mirrors with a total complement of 357 used in the decoration of the galerie des glaces (Verlet, 1985a). The arches themselves are fixed between marble pilasters whose capitals depict the symbols of France.[citation needed] These gilded bronze capitals include the fleur-de-lys and the Gallic cockerel or rooster. Many of the other attributes of the Hall of Mirrors were lost to war for financial purposes, such as the silver table pieces and guéridons were melted by order of Louis XIV in 1689 to finance the War of the League of Augsburg (Dangeau, 1854-6 <b>...</b>
0.37 min. | 5.0 user rating

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Lookiloos: French, Moroccan influences mingle in Los Gatos townhouse - San Jose Mercury News Tweet this news
San Jose Mercury News---Louis XVI- chairs are covered in charcoal gray Pierre Frey toile. French doors lead you to a deck that looks like the courtyard of a boutique hotel, with topiaries and Moroccan-tiled wrought-iron tables. On an end table in a guest - Date : Sat, 09 Apr 2011 07:01:42 GMT+00:00
All Hands on Deco - Wall Street Journal Tweet this news
Wall Street Journal--Jean-Henri Riesener was ebeniste (cabinetmaker) to -Louis XVI-, pupil of the great Oeben (maker of Louis XV's desk), and the man considered the greatest of his trade, among not inconsiderable competition, in the last quarter of t - Date : Fri, 08 Apr 2011 20:14:20 GMT+00:00
Seattle Fine Art & Antiques and Northwest Art Auctions - ArtfixDaily (blog) Tweet this news
ArtfixDaily (blog)--This session will also feature fine home furnishings and hand-knotted rugs, including a full parlor set of French -Louis XVI- style furniture, oak Arts & Crafts items and Victorian textiles. An Edward Sheriff Curtis orotone (go - Date : Fri, 08 Apr 2011 17:05:40 GMT+00:00
Author documents life of Madame Tussaud - Las Vegas Review-Journal (blog) Tweet this news
Las Vegas Review-Journal (blog)--Marie was soon as famous as her mentor for her work and was summoned to the palace at Versailles to tutor King -Louis XVI's- sister, Madame Elizabeth in the wax art. It was a wondrous time of new inventions, art and p - Date : Wed, 06 Apr 2011 12:14:20 GMT+00:00
The Mother Goose Code - BlogHer (blog) Tweet this news
BlogHer (blog)--Jack was King -Louis XVI- was beheaded (that's one way to lose your crown) and was then followed by Jill, or Marie Antoinette (hers came tumbling after). Humpty Dumpty. Not the cute little egg on a brick wall you thought he was. ... - Date : Thu, 07 Apr 2011 20:02:39 GMT+00:00
David Armitage: What Would Marx Say about Cairo? - History News Network Tweet this news
History News Network---...- or in -France- more than two centuries past? Is Hosni Mubarak going to be next week's Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, or -Louis XVI-? ... - Date : Tue, 08 Feb 2011 12:44:43 GMT+00:00
The Egyptian Bargain - National Review Online Tweet this news
National Review Online--The scholar Walter Russell Mead notes that American presidents have been faced numerous times with revolutions � the fall of -Louis XVI of France- and the ... - Date : Mon, 07 Feb 2011 05:02:34 GMT+00:00
Mummified Head Identified As King Henry IV of France - Science 2.0 (blog) Tweet this news
Science 2.0 (blog)--After executing -Louis XVI-, the current monarch, they went after the old ones. Like Louis, Henry lost his head during the Revolution, though not to a ... - Date : Wed, 15 Dec 2010 05:45:09 GMT+00:00
Hockey rivals showed class in memorial tribute to player - Attleboro Sun Chronicle Tweet this news
Attleboro Sun Chronicle--However, King -Louis XVI- and the Estates General refused to ratify his program. Revolution eventually followed. Sounds familiar, doesn't it? ... - Date : Mon, 10 Jan 2011 07:48:04 GMT+00:00
Revolutionary prospects - The News International Tweet this news
The News International--Within three years after the revolution began, the tyrannical rule of Emperor -Louis XVI- was destroyed, he and Empress Marie Antoinette were executed, ... - Date : Wed, 05 Jan 2011 00:34:42 GMT+00:00

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Louis XV
King of France and Navarre
10 May 1774 - 1 October 1791
Succeeded by
National Convention;
eventually Napoléon I
as Emperor of the French
King of the French
1 October 1791 - 21 September 1792
French royalty
Preceded by
Louis
Dauphin of France
20 December 1765 - 10 May 1774
Succeeded by
Louis-Joseph
Preceded by
Louis, Dauphin of France
Heir to the Throne
as Heir apparent
20 December 1765 - 10 May 1774
Succeeded by
Louis, Count of Provence
Titles in pretence
New lossNew reason=Proclamation of the abolition of the monarchyNew Monarchy abolishedSucceeded by
Louis XVII

Dauphins of France and their spouse

1st Generationnone
2nd GenerationLouis, 18th Dauphin* (1601-1610)
3rd GenerationLouis, 19th Dauphin* (1638-1643)
4th GenerationLouis, 20th Dauphin (1661-1711) - Duchess Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria *
5th GenerationLouis, 21st Dauphin (1711-1712) - Princess Maria Adelaide of Savoy
6th GenerationLouis, 22nd Dauphin (1712) * Louis, 23rd Dauphin* (1712-1715)
7th GenerationLouis, 24th Dauphin (1729 �1765) - Infanta Maria Teresa Rafaela of Spain - Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony
8th GenerationLouis Auguste, 25th Dauphin* (1765-1770) - Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria
9th GenerationLouis Joseph, 26th Dauphin (1781-1789) * Louis Charles, 27th Dauphin* (1789-1791) * Louis Antoine, 28th Dauphin - Princess Marie Thérèse Charlotte of France

Princes of France

1st GenerationLouis XIII * Nicolas Henri, Duke of Orléans* * Gaston, Duke of Orléans*
2nd GenerationLouis XIV * Philippe, Duke of Orléans * Jean Gaston, Duke of Valois*
3rd GenerationLouis, Dauphin of France * Philippe Charles, Duke of Anjou* * Louis François, Duke of Anjou* * Philippe Charles, Duke of Valois* * Alexandre Louis, Duke of Valois* * Philippe, Duke of Orléans
4th GenerationLouis, Duke of Burgundy, Dauphin of France * King Felipe V of Spain * Charles, Duke of Berry*
5th GenerationLouis, Duke of Brittany* * Louis, Duke of Brittany* * Louis XV
6th GenerationLouis, Dauphin of France * Philippe, Duke of Anjou*
7th GenerationLouis, Duke of Burgundy* * Xavier, Duke of Aquitaine* * Louis XVII* * Louis XVIII* * Charles X
8th GenerationLouis Joseph, Dauphin of France* * Louis XVII* * Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême* * Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry

Pretenders to the French throne since 1792

Monarchy in exile (1792 �1815)1792 Louis XVI 1793 Louis XVII 1795 Louis XVIII 1814 1815
Legitimist pretenders (1830 �present)1830 Charles X 1836 Louis XIX 1844 Henri V 1883 Jean III 1887 Charles XI 1909 Jacques I 1931 Alphonse I 1936 Alphonse II 1941 Jacques II 1975 Alphonse III 1989 Louis XX present
Orléanist pretenders (1848 �present)1848 Louis-Philippe I 1850 Philippe VII (or Louis-Philippe II) 1894 Philippe VIII 1926 Jean III 1940 Henri VI 1999 Henri VII present
Bonapartist Prince Imperial (1814 �present)1814 1815 Napoléon I 1821 Napoléon II 1832 Joseph 1844 Louis 1846 Napoléon III (Emperor 1852 �1870) 1873 Napoléon IV Eugene 1879 Napoléon V Victor 1926 Napoléon VI Louis 1997 Napoléon VII Charles/Napoléon VIII Jean-Christophe present (disputed)
Bonapartist Prince Canino (1832 �1924)1832 Lucien I 1840 Charles 1857 Joseph 1865 Lucien II 1895 Napoléon III Charles 1899 Roland 1924

House of Bourbon

Henry_VI
Spouse(s)HH Margaret of Valois * Lady Marie de' Medici
ChildrenLouis XIII * Elisabeth, Queen of Spain * Christine Marie, Duchess of Savoy * Nicolas Henri, Duke of Orléans * Gaston, Duke of Orléans * Henriette Marie, Queen of England, Ireland and Scotland
SiblingsHenri, Duke of Beaumont (1551 �1553) * Louis, Count of Marle (1555 �1557) * Madeleine (1556) * Catherine, Duchess of Lorraine
Illegitimate ChildrenCésar, Duke of Vendôme * Catherine Henriette, Duchess of Elbeuf * Alexandre, Chevalier de Vendôme * Henri, Duke of Verneuil * Gabrielle Angelique, Duchess of La Valette and Epernon * Antoine, Count of Moret * Jeanne Baptiste, Abess of Fontevraud * Marie Henriette, Abess of Chelles
GrandchildrenAnne Marie Louise, Duchess of Montpensier * Marguerite Louise, Grand Duchess of Tuscany * Élisabeth Marguerite, Duchess of Alençon and Angoulême * Françoise Madeleine, Duchess of Savoy * Princess Marie Anne * Jean Gaston, Duke of Valois * Louis XIV of France * Philippe, Duke of Orléans
Louis_XIII
Spouse(s)HRH Infanta Ana Maria Mauricia of Spain***
ChildrenLouis XIV of France * Philippe, Duke of Orléans
GrandchildrenLouis, Dauphin of France * Princess Anne Élisabeth * Princess Marie Anne * Princess Marie Therèse, Madame Royale * Philippe Charles, Duke of Anjou * Louis François, Duke of Anjou * Marie Louise, Queen of Spain * Philippe Charles, Duke of Valois * Anne Marie, Queen of Sardinia * Alexandre Louis, Duke of Valois * Philippe Charles, Duke of Orléans * Élisabeth Charlotte, Duchess of Lorraine
Great
grandchildren
Louis, Duke of Burgundy * King Felipe of Spain * Charles, Duke of Berry * Louis, Duke of Orléans
Louis_XIV
Spouse(s)HRH Infanta María Teresa of Spain*** * Françoise d'Aubigné, Marchioness of Maintenon
ChildrenLouis, Dauphin of France * Princess Anne Élisabeth * Princess Marie Anne * Princess Marie Therèse, Madame Royale * Philippe Charles, Duke of Anjou * Louis François, Duke of Anjou
Illegitimate ChildrenMarie Anne, Princess of Conti * Louis, Count of Vermandois * Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine * Louis César, Count of Vexin * Louise Françoise, Duchess of Bourbon * Louise Marie Anne, Mademoiselle de Tours * Françoise Marie, Duchess of Orléans * Louis Alexandre, Count of Toulouse * Louise, Baroness of La Queue
GrandchildrenLouis, Duke of Burgundy * 'King Felipe of Spain'+ * Charles, Duke of Berry * Louis Auguste, Prince of Dombes * Louis Charles, Count of Eu * Louise Françoise, Mademoiselle du Maine * Louis Jean Marie, Duke of Penthièvre
Great
grandchildren
Louis, Duke of Brittany * Louis, Duke of Brittany * Louis XV of France * Louis I of Spain* * Felipe of Spain* * Felipe of Spain* * Ferdinand VI of Spain* * Charles III of Spain* * Francisco of Spain* * Mariana Víctoria, Queen of Portugal* * Philip, Duke of Parma* * Maria Teresa Rafaela, Dauphine of France* * Luis, Count of Chinchón* * Maria Antonietta, Queen of Sardinia* * Charles, Duke of Alençon * Marie Louise Élisabeth d'Alençon * Louis Alexandre, Prince of Lamballe
Louis_XV
Spouse(s)Maria Carolina Sophia Felicity Leszczyńska
ChildrenLouise Élisabeth, Duchess of Parma * Princess Henriette * Princess Louise * Louis, Dauphin of France * Philippe, Duke of Anjou * Marie Adélaïde, Duchess of Louvois * Princess Victoire * Sophie, Duchess of Louvois * Princess Thérèse * Princess Louise Marie
GrandchildrenPrincess Marie Therèse, Madame Royale * Princess Marie Zéphyrine * Louis, Duke of Burgundy * Xavier, Duke of Aquitaine * Louis XVI of France * Louis XVIII of France * Charles X of France * Clothilde, Queen of Sardinia * Princess Élisabeth
Illegitimate children
included
Charles de Vintimille * Agathe Louise de Saint-Antoine * Philippe, Duke of Narbonne-Lara * Louis, Count of Narbonne-Lara
Louis XVI
Spouse(s)HRH Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria**
ChildrenMarie Thérèse, Duchess of Angoulême * Louis Joseph, Dauphin of France * Louis XVII of France * Princess Sophie Hélène
NoteLouis had no children; he died aged 10 in 1795. His uncle, future Louis XVIII of France proclaimed himself regent but both titles were disputed. See Bourbon Restoration.
Louis_XVIII
Spouse(s)HRH Princess Marie Josephine Louise of Savoy
Charles_X
Spouse(s)HRH Princess Maria Teresa of Savoy
ChildrenLouis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême * Sophie, Mademoiselle * Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry * Marie Thérèse, Mademoiselle d'Angoulême
GrandchildrenPrincess Louise Élisabeth * Prince Louis * Louise Marie Thérèse, Duchess of Parma * Henri, Count of Chambord



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