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International Space Station

StationInternational Space Station
Station ImageSTS-134_International_Space_Station_after_undocking.jpg
Station Image AltA rearward view of the ISS backdropped by the limb of the Earth. In view are the station's four large, gold-coloured solar array wings, two on either side of the station, mounted to a central truss structure. Further along the truss are six large, white radiators, three next to each pair of arrays. In between the solar arrays and radiators is a cluster of pressurised modules arranged in an elongated T shape, also attached to the truss. A set of blue solar arrays are mounted to the module at the aft end of the cluster.
Station Image Size300px
Extra Image Size300px
Extra Image CaptionThe International Space Station on 30 May 2011 as seen from the departing   during STS-134.
InsigniaISS insignia.svg
Insignia Size150px
Insignia CaptionISS Insignia
Insignia AltA silhouette of the ISS show the Earth, within it, a orange shield with the words 'super Space Station' at the bootom.
Expedition 28
Launch1998 � 2012
Launch PadBaikonur LC-81/23, LC-1/5
KSC LC-39,
Mass417289 kg (as of 03/09/2011)
Length51 m (167.3 ft)
from PMA-2 to Zvezda
Width109 m (357.5 ft)
along truss, arrays extended
Heightc. 20 m (c. 66 ft)
nadir � zenith, arrays forward � aft
(27 November 2009) 
Volume837 m3
(21 March 2011)
Pressure101.3 kPa (29.91 inHg, 1 atm)
Perigee352 km (190 nmi) AMSL
(21 March 2011)
Apogee355 km (192 nmi) AMSL
(21 March 2011)
Inclination51.6 degrees
Speed7,706.6 m/s
(27,743.8 km/h, 17,239.2 mph)
Period91 minutes
In Orbit 
( )
( )
( )
Decay2 km/month
NSSDC ID1998-067A
As Of9 March 2011
(unless noted otherwise)
Stats Ref
Configuration ImageISS configuration 2011-05 en.svg
Configuration AltThe components of the ISS in an exploded diagram, with modules on-orbit highlighted in orange, and those still awaiting launch in blue or pink.
Configuration CaptionStation elements  
(exploded view)
Configuration Size300px

     Home | Space station | International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is an internationally-developed research facility, which is being assembled in low Earth orbit and is the largest space station ever constructed. On-orbit construction of the station began in 1998 and is scheduled for completion by 2012. The station is expected to remain in operation until at least 2020, and potentially to 2028. Like many artificial satellites, the ISS can be seen from Earth with the naked eye. The ISS serves as a research laboratory that has a microgravity environment in which crews conduct experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy and meteorology. The station has a unique environment for the testing of the spacecraft systems that will be required for missions to the Moon and Mars. The ISS is operated by Expedition crews, and has been continuously staffed since 2 November 2000-an uninterrupted human presence in space for the past . , the crew of Expedition 28 is aboard.

The ISS is a synthesis of several space station projects that includes the American Freedom, the Soviet/Russian Mir-2, the European Columbus and the Japanese Kibō. Budget constraints led to the merger of these projects into a single multi-national programme. The ISS project began in 1994 with the Shuttle-Mir program, and the first module of the station, Zarya, was launched in 1998 by Russia. Assembly continues, as pressurised modules, external trusses and other components are launched by American space shuttles, Russian Proton rockets and Russian Soyuz rockets. , the station consisted of 11 pressurised modules and an extensive integrated truss structure (ITS). Power is provided by 16 solar arrays mounted on the external truss, in addition to four smaller arrays on the Russian modules. The station is maintained at an orbit between 278 km (172.7 mi) and 460 km (285.8 mi) altitude, and travels at an average speed of 27,724 km (17,227 mi) per hour, completing 15.7 orbits per day.

Operated as a joint project between the five participant space agencies, the station's sections are controlled by mission control centres on the ground operated by the American National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), and the European Space Agency (ESA). The ownership and use of the space station is established in intergovernmental treaties and agreements that allow the Russian Federation to retain full ownership of its own modules, with the remainder of the station allocated between the other international partners. The station is serviced by Soyuz spacecraft, Progress spacecraft, space shuttles, the Automated Transfer Vehicle and the H-II Transfer Vehicle, and has been visited by astronauts and cosmonauts from 15 different nations. The cost of the station has been estimated by ESA as -100 billion over 30 years, although other estimates range from 35 billion dollars to 160 billion dollars. The financing, research capabilities and technical design of the ISS program have been criticised because of the high cost.

International Space Station Video

A real time recreation of Yuri Gagarin's pioneering first orbit, shot entirely in space from on board the International Space Station. The film combines this new footage with Gagarin's original mission audio and a new musical score by composer Philip Sheppard. For more information visit
99.25 min. | 4.90 user rating
Science & Reason on Facebook: ISS Tour - Welcome To The International Space Station! --- Subscribe to Science & Reason: ⢠ ⢠ ⢠ ⢠ --- The International Space Station (ISS) is an internationally developed research facility, which is being assembled in low Earth orbit. On-orbit construction of the station began in 1998 and is scheduled for completion by 2011. The station will remain in operation until at least 2015, and likely 2020. With a greater mass than that of any previous space station, the ISS can be seen from the Earth with the naked eye, and, as of 2010, is the largest artificial satellite orbiting the Earth. The ISS serves as a research laboratory that has a microgravity environment in which crews conduct experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy and meteorology. The station has a unique environment for the testing of the spacecraft systems that will be required for missions to the Moon and Mars. The ISS is operated by Expedition crews, and has been continuously staffed since November 2000âan uninterrupted human presence in space for the past nine years. The ISS is a synthesis of several space station projects that includes the American Freedom, the Soviet/Russian Mir-2, the European Columbus and the Japanese KibÅ. Budget constraints led to the merger of these projects into a single multi-national programme. The ISS project began in 1994 with the Shuttle-Mir programme, and <b>...</b>
6.88 min. | 4.93 user rating
Experimentation with water in the International Space Station. Experimentación con agua en la Estacion Espacial Internacional.
2.87 min. | 4.75 user rating
Time lapse footage taken by Oregon State University alum Don Pettit during his time on the International Space Station. This one shows Earth from day to night. Watch the other eight time lapse videos from space science
0.63 min. | 4.98 user rating
Read full transcript: Google, YouTube and the PBS NewsHour took you aboard space shuttle Endeavour and the International Space Station for a live interview with Commander Mark Kelly and crew as they orbit the earth at 17500 mph.
31.27 min. | 4.49 user rating
Want more? Subscribe to NASA on iTunes! Or get tweeted by NASA: A fortuitous orbit of the International Space Station allowed the astronauts this striking view of Sarychev Volcano (Kuril Islands, northeast of Japan) in an early stage of eruption on June 12, 2009. Sarychev Peak is one of the most active volcanoes in the Kuril Island chain, and it is located on the northwestern end of Matua Island. For more info:
0.15 min. | 4.94 user rating
[Cockpit View] Space Shuttle Discovery Launch at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. July 4, 2006 headed the STS-121 crew toward the International Space Station. The crew of Space Shuttle Discovery tested new equipment and procedures that increase the safety of space shuttles during the STS-121 mission to the International Space Station. It also performed maintenance on the space station and delivered supplies, equipment and a new Expedition 13 crew member to the station. This mission carried on analysis of safety improvements that debuted on the Return to Flight mission, STS-114, and built upon those tests
10.68 min. | 4.93 user rating
The international space station recorded from the Earth. See the new P1 and S1 truss segments with radiators, soyuz, progress, mobile transporter with canadarm. From:
0.28 min. | 4.69 user rating
Atlantis has blasted off on NASA's last space shuttle launch. The historic liftoff occurred Friday morning, 30 years and three months after the very first shuttle flight. Four astronauts are riding Atlantis to orbit. The shuttle is bound for the International Space Station, making one final supply run. Hundreds of thousands of spectators jammed Cape Canaveral and surrounding towns for the farewell. Kennedy Space Center itself was packed with shuttle workers, astronauts and 45000 invited guests, the maximum allowed. The flight will last 12 days. Weather permitting, Atlantis will return to Kennedy, where it will end up on permanent display. RT on Facebook: RT on Twitter:
1.95 min. | 4.88 user rating
In The Social Network, Justin Timberlake plays Sean Parker, Facebook's founding president, and an entrepreneur best known for Napster, which he co-founded at age 19, and which influenced the way people think about and share music. Two years later, Parker co-founded Plaxo, pioneering viral technologies that allow users to easily update contact information and stay in touch with colleagues. He served as Plaxo's president until 2004, when he joined with Mark Zuckerberg to develop Facebook. Parker was Facebook's founding president, guiding the company's early growth and formulating strategies that helped it become the world's most popular social networking site. His latest company is Causes, which he co-founded in 2007, and which has become the largest online platform for grassroots activism and philanthropy, and the most popular non-game application on Facebook. In addition to founding and leading emerging companies directly, Parker is a managing partner at Founders Fund, a venture capital firm that has backed companies including Facebook, SpaceX (the company NASA hired to resupply the International Space Station), Quantcast, and Mint. This is an excerpt from a roundtable entitled "The Allure of the Hive" held at the Philoctetes Center and moderated by David Kirkpatrick author of the definitive book on Facebook, "The Facebook Effect: The Inside Story of the Company That is Connecting the World", Sean Parker talks about his strategy at Facebook.
11.40 min. | 4.72 user rating

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ISS crew opens hatch of Progress M-08M cargo spaceship - The Voice of Russia Tweet this news
The Voice of Russia--The Russian cosmonauts have opened the hatch of the Progress M-08M cargo spaceship, which has docked the -International Space Station- (ISS) on Saturday. ... - Date : Sun, 31 Oct 2010 14:38:26 GMT+00:00
Index - The Canadian Press Tweet this news
The Canadian Press---...- but notice that retired Canadian astronaut Dave Williams still bursts with patriotic pride when describing his visit to the -International Space Station-. ... - Date : Sun, 31 Oct 2010 15:29:45 GMT+00:00
Clearwater astronaut Nicole Stott looks forward to second flight on 'Discovery' - Tweet this news's part of a six-person crew hoping to blast off Wednesday on a mission to the -International Space Station-. NASA had hoped to launch today, ... - Date : Mon, 01 Nov 2010 00:37:33 GMT+00:00

Assembly : Pressurised modules
Module Assembly mission Launch date Launch system Nation Isolated view Notes

(lit. dawn)
1A/R November 20, 1998 Proton-K Russia (builder)
USA (financier)
The first component of the ISS to be launched, Zarya provided electrical power, storage, propulsion, and guidance during initial assembly. The module now serves as a storage compartment, both inside the pressurised section and in the externally mounted tanks which hold over 5.4 tons of fuel.
(Node 1)
2A 4 December 1998 Space Shuttle  , STS-88 USA
The first node module, connecting the American section of the station to the Russian section (via PMA-1), and providing berthing locations for the Z1 truss, Quest airlock, Destiny laboratory, Tranquility node and the PMM Leonardo.
(lit. star)
(service module)
1R 12 July 2000 Proton-K Russia
The station's service module, which provides the main living quarters for resident crews, environmental systems and attitude & orbit control. The module also provides additional docking locations for Soyuz spacecraft, Progress spacecraft and the Automated Transfer Vehicle, and its addition rendered the ISS permanently habitable for the first time.
(US laboratory)
5A 7 February 2001 Space Shuttle  , STS-98 USA
The primary research facility for US payloads aboard the ISS, Destiny is intended for general experiments. The module houses 24 International Standard Payload Racks, some of which are used for environmental systems and crew daily living equipment. Destiny also serves as the mounting point for most of the station's Integrated Truss Structure.
(joint airlock)
7A 12 July 2001 Space Shuttle Atlantis, STS-104 USA
The USOS airlock, Quest hosts spacewalks with both US EMU and Russian Orlan spacesuits. Quest consists of two segments; the equipment lock, that stores spacesuits and equipment, and the crew lock, from which astronauts can exit into space. This module has a separately controlled atmosphere. Crew sleep in this module, breathing a low nitrogen mixture the night before scheduled EVAs, to avoid decompression sickness (known as "the bends") in the low pressure suits.
(lit. pier)
(docking compartment)
4R 14 September 2001 Soyuz-U, Progress M-SO1 Russia
Pirs provides the ISS with additional docking ports for Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, and allows egress and ingress for spacewalks by cosmonauts using Russian Orlan spacesuits, in addition to providing storage space for these spacesuits.
(node 2)
10A 23 October 2007 Space Shuttle  , STS-120 Europe (builder)
USA (operator)
The second of the station's node modules, Harmony is the utility hub of the ISS. The module contains four racks that provide electrical power, bus electronic data, and acts as a central connecting point for several other components via its six Common Berthing Mechanisms (CBMs). The European Columbus and Japanese Kibō laboratories are permanently berthed to the module, and American Space Shuttle Orbiters dock with the ISS via PMA-2, attached to Harmonys forward port.
(European laboratory)
1E 7 February 2008 Space Shuttle Atlantis, STS-122 Europe
The primary research facility for European payloads aboard the ISS, Columbus provides a generic laboratory as well as facilities specifically designed for biology, biomedical research and fluid physics. Several mounting locations are affixed to the exterior of the module, which provide power and data to external experiments such as the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF), Solar Monitoring Observatory, Materials International Space Station Experiment, and Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space. A number of expansions are planned for the module to study quantum physics and cosmology.
Kibō Experiment Logistics Module
(lit. hope and wish JEM � ELM)
1J/A 11 March 2008 Space Shuttle Endeavour, STS-123 Japan
Part of the Kibō Japanese Experiment Module laboratory, the ELM provides storage and transportation facilities to the laboratory with a pressurised section to serve internal payloads.
Kibō Pressurised Module
(JEM � PM)
1J 31 May 2008 Space Shuttle Discovery, STS-124 Japan
Part of the Kibō Japanese Experiment Module laboratory, the PM is the core module of Kibō to which the ELM and Exposed Facility are berthed. The laboratory is the largest single ISS module and contains a total of 23 racks, including 10 experiment racks. The module is used to carry out research in space medicine, biology, Earth observations, materials production, biotechnology, and communications research. The PM also serves as the mounting location for an external platform, the Exposed Facility (EF), that allows payloads to be directly exposed to the harsh space environment. The EF is serviced by the module's own robotic arm, the JEM � RMS, which is mounted on the PM.
(lit. 'search')
(mini-research module 2)
5R 10 November 2009 Soyuz-U, Progress M-MIM2 Russia
Poisk is the second Russian airlock for spacewalks, almost identical to Pirs, but lacking Strela cargo cranes. It is one of the four main Russian docking ports for Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, and is used as an interface for scientific experiments.
(node 3)
20A 8 February 2010 Space Shuttle Endeavour, STS-130 Europe (builder)
USA (operator)
The third and last of the station's US nodes, Tranquility contains an advanced life support system to recycle waste water for crew use and generate oxygen for the crew to breathe. The node also provides four berthing locations for more attached pressurised modules or crew transportation vehicles, in addition to the permanent berthing location for the station's Cupola.
Cupola 20A 8 February 2010 Space Shuttle Endeavour, STS-130 Europe (builder)
USA (operator)
The Cupola is an observatory module that provides ISS crew members with a direct view of robotic operations and docked spacecraft, as well as an observation point for watching the Earth. The module comes equipped with robotic workstations for operating the SSRMS and shutters to protect its windows from damage caused by micrometeorites. It features a 80 cm (31.5 in) round window, the largest window on the station.
(lit. dawn)
(mini-research module 1)
ULF4 14 May 2010 Space Shuttle Atlantis, STS-132 Russia
Rassvet is being used for docking and cargo storage aboard the station.
(Permanent Multipurpose Module)
ULF5 24 February 2011 Space Shuttle Discovery, STS-133 Italy (Builder)
USA (Operator)
The Leonardo PMM houses spare parts and supplies, allowing longer times between resupply missions and freeing space in other modules, particularly Columbus. The PMM was created by converting the Italian Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module into a module that could be permanently attached to the station. The arrival of the PMM module marked the completion of the US Orbital Segment.

: Launch schedule
Module Assembly mission Launch date Launch system Nation Isolated view Notes
(lit. 'science')
(Multipurpose Laboratory Module)
3R May 2012 Proton-M Russia
The MLM will be Russia's primary research module as part of the ISS and will be used for general microgravity experiments, docking, and cargo logistics. The module provides a crew work and rest area, and will be equipped with a backup attitude control system that can be used to control the station's attitude. Based on the current assembly schedule, the arrival of Nauka will complete construction of the Russian Orbital Segment and it will be the last major component added to the station.

Visiting spacecraft : Currently docked
Spacecraft Mission Docking port Docked Undocking Notes
RU Soyuz TMA-21 Expedition 27/28 Poisk 6 April 2011 23:09 September 2011
RU Progress M-10M Progress 42 Cargo Pirs 29 April 2011 14:29 25 October 2011
RU Soyuz TMA-02M Expedition 28/29 Rassvet 9 June 2011 21:18 November 2011
RU Progress M-11M Progress 43 Cargo Zvezda aft. 23 June 2011 07:37 29 August 2011

: Docking schedule
Spacecraft Launch Mission Docking Docking port Notes
US Atlantis 8 July 2011 STS-135/ULF7 10 July 2011 Harmony forward
RU Progress M-12M 30 August 2011 Progress 44 Cargo 1 September 2011 Zvezda aft
RU Soyuz TMA-22 30 September 2011. Expedition 29/30 2 October 2011 Poisk
US Dragon C3 8 October 2011 Dragon Cargo 10 October 2011 Harmony nadir
RU Progress M-13M 26 October 2011 Progress 45 Cargo 28 October 2011 Pirs
US Dragon C4 7 December 2011 Dragon 1 Cargo 9 December 2011 TBD
US Cygnus 1 14 December 2011 Cygnus 1 Cargo 16 December 2011 TBD
RU Progress M-14M 27 December 2011 Progress 46 Cargo 29 December 2011 Pirs
RU Soyuz TMA-03M December 2011. Expedition 30/31 December 2011 Rassvet
Japan White Stork 3 12 January 2012 HTV-3 Cargo 17 January 2012 Harmony nadir
Europe Edoardo Amaldi 29 February 2012 ATV-3 Cargo 7 March 2012 Zvezda aft
RU Soyuz TMA-04M March 2012. Expedition 31/32 March 2012 Poisk

Components of the International Space Station

Major components
in orbit
Zarya (Functional Cargo Block) * Zvezda (Service Module) * Unity (Node 1) * Harmony (Node 2) * Tranquility (Node 3) * Destiny (Laboratory) * Columbus (Laboratory) * Kibō (PM, ELM-PS, EF) * Quest (Airlock) * Pirs (Airlock / Docking Module) * Rassvet (MRM 1) * Poisk (MRM 2) * Cupola * Integrated Truss Structure (ITS)
in orbit
Canadarm2 (MSS) * Dextre (SPDM) * Kibō Remote Manipulator System * External Stowage Platforms (ESPs) * ExPRESS Logistics Carriers 1&2 (ELCs) * Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMAs) * Electrical System * Life Support System
Launched periodicallyMulti-Purpose Logistics Modules (MPLMs) * Kibō (ELM-ES)
Scheduled for ShuttleExPRESS Logistics Carriers 3&4 (ELCs) * Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer * Leonardo (PMM) * OBSS
Scheduled for ProtonNauka (Multipurpose Laboratory Module) * European Robotic Arm (ERA)
Not currently scheduledExPRESS Logistics Carrier 5 (ELC-5) * Interim Control Module (ICM) * Node 4
CancelledPropulsion Module * Centrifuge Accommodations Module (CAM) * Habitation Module * Crew Return Vehicle (CRV/ACRV) * Science Power Platform (SPP) * Universal Docking Module (UDM) * Russian Research Module (RM)
Support vehiclesCurrent: Space Shuttle * Soyuz * Progress * Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) * H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV)
Future: Dragon * Cygnus * Orion * Rus
Mission Control CentersMCC-H (NASA) * TsUP (RKA) * Col-CC (ESA) * ATV-CC (ESA) * JEM-CC (JAXA) * HTV-CC (JAXA) * MSS-CC (CSA)

Expeditions to the International Space Station

Completed:Expedition 1 * Expedition 2 * Expedition 3 * Expedition 4 * Expedition 5 * Expedition 6 * Expedition 7 * Expedition 8 * Expedition 9 * Expedition 10 * Expedition 11 * Expedition 12 * Expedition 13 * Expedition 14 * Expedition 15 * Expedition 16 * Expedition 17 * Expedition 18 * Expedition 19 * Expedition 20 * Expedition 21 * Expedition 22 * Expedition 23
Current:Expedition 24
Planned:Expedition 25 * Expedition 26 * Expedition 27 * Expedition 28 * Expedition 29 * Expedition 30 * Expedition 31 * Expedition 32 * Expedition 33 * Expedition 34

Human spaceflights to the International Space Station

CompletedSTS-88 * STS-96 * STS-101 * STS-106 * STS-92 * Soyuz TM-31 * STS-97 * STS-98 * STS-102 * STS-100 * Soyuz TM-32 * STS-104 * STS-105 * Soyuz TM-33 * STS-108 * STS-110 * Soyuz TM-34 * STS-111 * STS-112 * Soyuz TMA-1 * STS-113 * Soyuz TMA-2 * Soyuz TMA-3 * Soyuz TMA-4 * Soyuz TMA-5 * Soyuz TMA-6 * STS-114 * Soyuz TMA-7 * Soyuz TMA-8 * STS-121 * STS-115 * Soyuz TMA-9 * STS-116 * Soyuz TMA-10 * STS-117 * STS-118 * Soyuz TMA-11 * STS-120 * STS-122 * STS-123 * Soyuz TMA-12 * STS-124 * Soyuz TMA-13 * STS-126 * STS-119 * Soyuz TMA-14 * Soyuz TMA-15 * STS-127 * STS-128 * Soyuz TMA-16 * STS-129 * Soyuz TMA-17 * STS-130 * STS-131 * STS-132
CurrentSoyuz TMA-18 * Soyuz TMA-19
PlannedSoyuz TMA-01M * STS-133 * Soyuz TMA-20 * STS-134 * Soyuz TMA-21 * Soyuz TMA-02M * Soyuz TMA-22 * Soyuz TMA-03M * Soyuz TMA-04M * Soyuz TMA-05M * List of Constellation missions

Space stations and habitats

International Space Station (ISS) * Genesis I1 and II1 (private, Bigelow Aerospace)
Soviet Union
and Russia
Salyut (Salyut 1 * DOS-22 * Salyut 21, 3 * Cosmos 5571 * Salyut 33 * Salyut 4 * Salyut 53 * Salyut 6 * Salyut 7) * Polyus2 * Mir
United StatesSkylab
Manned Orbital Laboratory * Skylab B * Galaxy
Space Station Freedom (USOS) * Columbus * Mir-2 (ROS)
ChinaProject 921-2 (Tiangong 1 * Tiangong 2 * Tiangong 3)
Bigelow AerospaceSundancer * BA 330
Excalibur AlmazAlmaz commercial
Rotating wheel * Bernal sphere * O'Neill cylinder * Stanford torus * Wet workshop * Space habitat * Industrial Space Facility

United States government human spaceflight programs

ActiveSpace Shuttle * ISS (joint) *
PreviousX-15 (suborbital) * Mercury * Gemini * Apollo * Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (with USSR) * Skylab * Shuttle-Mir (with Russia)
CanceledMISS * Orion (nuclear) * Dyna-Soar * Manned Orbital Laboratory * National Aero-Space Plane * Space Station Freedom (now ISS) * Orbital Space Plane *
FutureProject Constellation (future uncertain)

Soviet and Russian government manned space programs

ActiveSoyuz * ISS (joint)
PastVostok * Voskhod * Salyut * Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (joint) * Mir * Shuttle-Mir Program (joint)
CancelledZond (lunar Soyuz 7K-L1) * N1-L3 (Moon landing program) * TMK (Mars flyby program) * Spiral * Almaz (incorporated into Salyut program) / TKS spacecraft * Energia / Buran * Kliper


General spaceflight
History (Space Race, Accidents and incidents) * Astrodynamics * Lists and timelines
Earth observation satellites (Spy satellites, weather satellites) * Space exploration * Space tourism * Satellite navigation * Space architecture * Space colonization
Human spaceflight
GeneralAstronaut * Life support system
HazardsWeightlessness (space adaptation syndrome) * cosmic radiation
Major projectsVostok * Mercury * Voskhod * Gemini * Soyuz * Apollo * Space Shuttle * Shenzhou * Mir * ISS * Constellation
OtherExtra-vehicular activity
Launch vehicle * Space Shuttle * Robotic spacecraft * Spacecraft propulsion * Rocket
Sub-orbital * Orbital (Geosynchronous orbit, Geocentric orbit) * Interplanetary spaceflight * Interstellar travel * Intergalactic travel
Space launch
Expendable and Reusable systems * Escape velocity * Direct ascent * Non-rocket spacelaunch * Spaceport * Launch pad
Main agencies
Private spaceflight * Space weather * Lagrangian point * Space and survival |

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