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American Revolutionary War

American Revolutionary War
Military Conflict
ConflictAmerican Revolutionary War
DateApril 19, 1775 � September 3, 1783
LocationEastern North America, Gibraltar, Balearic Islands, Central America;
French, Dutch, and English colonial possessions in the Indian subcontinent and elsewhere;
European coastal waters, Caribbean Sea, Atlantic and Indian Oceans
ResultPeace of Paris * American Independence
Britain loses area east of Mississippi River and south of Great Lakes & St. Lawrence River to independent United States & to Spain; Spain gains East Florida, West Florida and Minorca; Britain cedes Tobago and Senegal to France.
Dutch Republic cedes Negapatnam to Britain.
United States
Kingdom of France France
Spain Spain
Dutch Republic
Vermont Republic
Watauga Association
Kingdom of Great Britain
United States George Washington
United States Nathanael Greene
United States Horatio Gates
United States Benedict Arnold (Defected)
United States Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben
United States Marquis de La Fayette
Kingdom of France Comte de Rochambeau
Kingdom of France Comte de Grasse
Kingdom of France Bailli de Suffren
Spain Bernardo de Gálvez
Spain Luis de Córdova
Spain Juan de Lángara
'...full list'
Kingdom of Great Britain Lord North
Kingdom of Great Britain Sir William Howe
Kingdom of Great Britain Thomas Gage
Kingdom of Great Britain Sir Henry Clinton
Kingdom of Great Britain Lord Cornwallis 
Kingdom of Great Britain Sir Guy Carleton
Kingdom of Great Britain John Burgoyne 
Kingdom of Great Britain Benedict Arnold
Kingdom of Great Britain George Rodney
Kingdom of Great Britain Richard Howe
Kingdom of Great Britain Wilhelm von Knyphausen
Joseph Brant
'...full list'
At Height:
35,000 Continentals
44,500 Militia
55,000+ Sailors 
10,000 French (in America)
~60,000 French and Spanish (in Europe)
At Height:
56,000 British 
171,000 Sailors
30,000 Germans
50,000 Loyalists
13,000 Natives
50,000± American dead and wounded
20,000± British army dead and wounded 19,740 sailors dead
42,000 sailors deserted
7,554 German dead

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The American Revolutionary War (1775 � 1783) or American War of Independence, or simply Revolutionary War, began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen British colonies in North America, and ended in a global war between several European great powers.

The war was the result of the political American Revolution, which galvanized around the dispute between the Parliament of Great Britain and colonists opposed to the Stamp Act of 1765, which the Americans protested as unconstitutional. The Parliament insisted on its right to tax colonists; the Americans claimed their rights as Englishmen to no taxation without representation. The Americans formed a unifying Continental Congress and a shadow government in each colony. The American boycott of British tea led to the Boston Tea Party in 1773. London responded by ending self government in Massachusetts and putting it under the control of the army with General Thomas Gage as governor. In April of 1775, Gage sent a contingent of troops out of Boston to seize rebel arms. Local militia, known as 'minutemen,' confronted the British troops and nearly destroyed the British column. The Battles of Lexington and Concord ignited the war. Any chance of a compromise ended when the colonies declared independence and formed a new nation, the United States of America on July 4, 1776.

France, Spain and the Dutch Republic all secretly provided supplies, ammunition and weapons to the revolutionaries starting early in 1776. After early British success, the war became a standoff. The British used their naval superiority to capture and occupy American coastal cities while the rebels largely controlled the countryside, where 90 percent of the population lived. British strategy relied on mobilizing Loyalist militia, and was never fully realized. A British invasion from Canada ended in the capture of the British army at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777. That American victory persuaded France to enter the war openly in early 1778, balancing the two sides' military strength. Spain and the Dutch Republic-French allies-also went to war with Britain over the next two years, threatening an invasion of Great Britain and severely testing British military strength with campaigns in Europe. Spain's involvement culminated in the expulsion of British armies from West Florida, securing the American southern flank.

French involvement proved decisive yet expensive as it ruined France's economy. A French naval victory in the Chesapeake forced a second British army to surrender at the Siege of Yorktown in 1781. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris ended the war and recognized the sovereignty of the United States over the territory bounded roughly by what is now Canada to the north, Florida to the south, and the Mississippi River to the west.

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