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DesignerIntel, AMD
Bits16-bit, 32-bit, and/or 64-bit
EncodingVariable (1 to 15 bytes)
BranchingStatus register
Page Size8086 - i286: None
i386, i486: 4 KB pages
P5 Pentium: added 4 MB pages
(Legacy PAE: 4 KB→2 MB)
x86-64: added 1 GB pages.
Extensionsx87, IA-32, P6, MMX, SSE, SSE2, x86-64, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4, SSE5, AVX
OpenPartly. For some advanced features, x86 may require license from Intel; x86-64 may require an additional license from AMD. The 80486 processor has been on the market for over 20 years and so cannot be subject to patent claims. This subset of the x86 architecture is therefore fully open.
Gpr16-bit: 6 semi-dedicated registers + BP and SP;
32-bit: 6 GPRs + EBP and ESP;
64-bit: 14 GPRs + RBP and RSP.
Fpr16-bit: Optional separate x87 FPU.
32-bit: Optional separate or integrated x87 FPU, integrated SSE2 units in later processors.
64-bit: Integrated x87 and SSE2 units.

     Home | CPU architecture | X86

The term x86 refers to a family of instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU. The 8086 was launched in 1978 as a fully 16-bit extension of Intel's early 8-bit based microprocessors and also introduced segmentation to overcome the 16-bit addressing barrier of earlier chips. The term x86 derived from the fact that early successors to the 8086 also had names ending in "86". Many additions and extensions have been added to the x86 instruction set over the years, almost consistently with full backward compatibility. The architecture has been implemented in processors from Intel, Cyrix, AMD, VIA, and many others.

The term is not synonymous with IBM PC compatibility as this implies a multitude of other hardware; embedded systems as well as computers used x86 chips before the PC-compatible market started, some of them before the IBM PC itself.

As the term became common after the introduction of the 80386, it usually implies binary compatibility with the 32-bit instruction set of the 80386. This may sometimes be emphasized as x86-32 to distinguish it either from the original 16-bit "x86-16" or from the 64-bit x86-64. Although most x86 processors used in new personal computers and servers have 64-bit capabilities, to avoid compatibility problems with older computers or systems, the term x86-64 (or x64) is often used to denote 64-bit software, with the term x86 implying only 32-bit.

Although the 8086 was primarily developed for embedded systems and small single-user computers, largely as a response to the successful 8080-compatible Zilog Z80, the x86 line soon grew in features and processing power. Today, x86 is ubiquitous in both stationary and portable personal computers and has replaced midrange computers and RISC-based processors in a majority of servers and workstations as well. A large amount of software, including operating systems (OSs) such as DOS, Windows, Linux, BSD, Solaris, and Mac OS X supports x86-based hardware.

Modern x86 is relatively uncommon in embedded systems, however, and small low power applications (using tiny batteries) and low-cost microprocessor markets, such as home appliances and toys, lack any significant x86 presence. Simple 8-bit and 16-bit based architectures are common here, although VIA C7, VIA Nano, AMD's Geode, Athlon Neo, and Intel Atom are examples of 32- and 64-bit designs used in parts of these segments.

There have been several attempts, also within Intel itself, to break the market dominance of the "inelegant" x86 architecture that descended directly from the first simple 8-bit microprocessors. Examples of this are the iAPX 432 (alias Intel 8800), the Intel 960, Intel 860 and Intel and Hewlett Packard Itanium architecture. However, the continuous refinement of x86 microarchitectures, circuitry, and semiconductor manufacturing would prove it hard to replace x86 in many segments. AMD's 64 bit extension of x86 (which Intel eventually responded to with a compatible design) and the scalability of x86 chips such as the eight-core Intel Xeon and 12-core AMD Opteron is underlining x86 as an example of how continuous refinement of established industry standards can resist the competition from completely new architectures.

Note: In the following text, all instances of use of the prefixes kilo/mega/giga/tera are to be understood in the binary (powers-of-1024) sense. See the article on the IEC prefixes (kibi/mebi/gibi/tebi) for details.

X86 Video

╔═╦╗╔╦═╦═╦╦╦╦╗╔═╦══╦═╗ ║╚╣║║║╚╣╔╣╔╣║╚╣═╬╗╔╣═╣ ╠╗║╚╝╠╗║╚╣║║║║║═╣║║║═╣ ╚═╩══╩═╩═╩╝╚╩═╩═╝╚╝╚═╝ From Thepiratebay SNOW LEO X LEOPARD FOR LAPTOPS CON MAS DRIVERS Kalyways
6.75 min. | 4.82 user rating
Vídeo de Windows 7 Ultimate en español. ¡¡ LEER DESCRIPCIÓN PARA EVITAR PREGUNTAS !! - Para quienes pregunten cómo se hace lo del movimiento de las ventanas (0:14), se hace pulsando Windows + TAB. - Música: Breaking the Law - Judas Priest - Requisitos de Windows 7: REQUERIMIENTOS RECOMENDADOS: Procesador de 32 bits (x86) o de 64 bits (x64) a 1 GHz 1 GB de memoria del sistema 40 GB de disco duro con al menos 15 GB de espacio disponible Compatibilidad con gráficos DirectX 9 con lo siguiente: Controlador WDDM 128 MB de memoria de gráficos (mínimo) Pixel Shader 2.0 en hardware 32 bits por píxel Unidad de DVD-ROM Salida de audio Acceso a Internet (si procede, con tarifa aplicable) REQUERIMIENTOS MÍNIMOS: Procesador a 800 MHz y 512 MB de memoria del sistema 20 GB de disco duro con al menos 15 GB de espacio disponible Compatibilidad con gráficos Super VGA Unidad de CD-ROM - El vídeo ha sido grabado en el siguiente equipo: Core 2 Quad Q8300 (2.5 GHz x 4) 4 GB de memoria RAM Gráfica NVIDIA Geforce 9600 GT (1GB) HDD: 500 GB + 160 GB + 500 GB = 1160 GB ¡¡ No se me vayan a olvidar de puntuar y comentar el vídeo !! :D Si tenéis cualquier duda que no se haya resuelto todavía, o queréis que haga un tutorial sobre algo, no dudéis en comentarlo.
2.07 min. | 4.31 user rating
Must Read !! Download link : , Install access toolbar if requested by pressing start Read description before asking questions, all stupid questions will be deleted and not answered, and yes there is a such thing as stupid questions, your teacher was wrong. If you got rocked by the WGA update from Microsoft and your W7 is unactivated, click here : This is the video showing how to get Windows 7 for free and install it. It is Windows 7 Ultimate (Final) NOT the Beta or RC or RTM. Link 1 - Link 3 - I have also created a mini guide on Windows 7 that will answer most of your questions. Minimum Requirements: * 1 GHz processor (32- or 64-bit) * 1 GB of RAM (32-bit); 2 GB of RAM (64-bit) * 16 GB of available disk space (32-bit); 20 GB of available disk space (64-bit) * DirectX 9 graphics device with WDDM 1.0 or higher driver Personally Recommended Requirements: * 2.0 ghZ processor (32- or 64-bit) * 2GB of RAM (32-bit); 4GB of RAM (64-bit) * 30GB of available hard drive space. * Decent graphics card, that can run atleast XP or Vista in 32bit colour. Time: (Download to Finish Installation) - 3 - 5 hours, 4 hours will most likely be the download. And the installation will be around an hour to half an hour. 32BIT / 64BIT / x86 / x64? This ISO contains both x86, and x64. Now let me explain what that is. x86 - 32 bit: Use it on your computer if you have 3GB of RAM or less. x64 - 64 bit: Use it on your computer if you <b>...</b>
4.55 min. | 4.31 user rating
Usar control PS3 en Windows Vista x64, Windows 7 x64, Windows XP x64: Post completo Windows Vista x86, Windows 7 x86, Windows XP x86:
7.58 min. | 4.44 user rating
AMD Sets New Mark in x86 Innovation with First Detailed Disclosures of Two New Core Designs See Press Kit:
4.62 min. | 4.93 user rating
Mac Os X on a X86 architecture.
2.97 min. | 4.28 user rating
Мой рабочий стол :)) Система: Windows Vista x86 Ultimate
2.87 min. | 3.76 user rating
This is a re-visit of a past tutorial, since so many people were having trouble getting it to work. All files used in the video are below:
10.53 min. | 4.89 user rating
With Fusion technology from AMD, the PC industry will be changed forever. AMD is incorporating multi-core CPU (x86) technology, a powerful DirectX®11-capable discrete-level graphics and parallel processing engine onto a single die to create the first Accelerated Processing Unit (APU). Learn how AMD is doing that here. Read more at:
2.48 min. | 4.89 user rating
MSN Messenger and e-mail: A live DVD I made of Mac OS X x86. Booting up on my eMachines T2984. The numbers are minutes then seconds. Intel Celeron D 2.94Ghz 512mb of RAM I have not tested this on an AMD yet. I used AMD extensions when installing. I insterted this disc into my MacBook, and it would not boot the CD. I do not own an actual Hackintosh. Nor do I support it. I just wanted to create a LiveDVD so I could update my mac-formatted iPod on a PC. This DVD is not on torrents... an server... and I will not seed it.
5.47 min. | 3.96 user rating

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AMD Refutes ARM Speculation With x86 Pledge - eWEEK Europe UK Tweet this news
eWEEK Europe UK--Advanced Micro Devices is going to stay with the -x86- architecture as it moves into the mobile device space rather than pursue any licensing deal with ARM Holdings. Reportedly, AMD will continue to focus on its Fusion APU (accelerated pr - Date : Mon, 02 May 2011 06:53:36 GMT+00:00
Intel 3D transistors: why and when? - The Guardian Tweet this news
The Guardian--At this year's CES in January, Steve Ballmer made it clear that -x86- exclusivity was done for. With an eye on reentering the tablet market, the next release of Microsoft's legacy OS, Windows 8, would also run on ARM SOCs. This wil - Date : Mon, 09 May 2011 06:07:55 GMT+00:00
VIA Announces New Nanoβ„’ X2 E-Series Dual Core Processors - iTWire (press release) Tweet this news
iTWire (press release)--Taipei, Taiwan, 5 May, 2011 - VIA Technologies, Inc, a leading innovator of power efficient -x86- processor platforms, today announced that it will release its latest edition to its new family of low power dual core VIA Nano X2 Ser - Date : Mon, 09 May 2011 03:01:09 GMT+00:00
Intel Continues to Dominate Stable x86 Chip Market: Mercury - eWeek Tweet this news
eWeek--Intel held 81 percent of the -x86- processor space in the first quarter, while AMD had 18.2 percent, both of which showed little change over the same period in 2010. Intel continues to dominate an -x86- processor market that is seeing little fluctu - Date : Wed, 27 Apr 2011 03:17:13 GMT+00:00
ARM targets x86 architecture with Cortex-A15 - TG Daily Tweet this news
TG Daily--ARM has consolidated its control over the lucrative mobile space and is moving to challenge -x86- architecture in markets currently dominated by Intel and AMD. According to ARM exec James Bruce, Nvidia's recently announced Project Denver an - Date : Tue, 19 Apr 2011 15:00:53 GMT+00:00
ARM working on AMD to drop x86 - Tweet this news - Processor licensor ARM Holdings plc is trying to persuade Advanced Micro Devices Inc., the long-time rival to global chip leader Intel Corp. to license ARM processors and use them instead of the -x86- architecture. It is notable that - Date : Wed, 27 Apr 2011 10:35:41 GMT+00:00
Analysts Expect ARM Microprocessors to Be Viable Competitors for x86 in 2015. - X-bit Labs Tweet this news
X-bit Labs--At the same time, at present ARM-based chips cannot offer enough performance to power personal computers, unlike -x86--based chips. Nevertheless, some analysts believe that in four years time every tenth PC will be "ARMed". B - Date : Fri, 06 May 2011 16:42:06 GMT+00:00
Facebook Shares Green Data Center Designs But Keeps x86 - PCWorld Tweet this news
PCWorld--One of the biggest questions being asked recently, based on rumors, is whether Facebook has abandoned traditional -x86- server computing that's been around since the 1970s for low-power mobile computing chips--the same used in cell phones an - Date : Tue, 12 Apr 2011 17:11:09 GMT+00:00
Meditel selects Fujitsu to create ICT platform (Morocco) - Wireless Federation Tweet this news
Wireless Federation--Meditel is using the Fujitsu technology including some seventeen Primequest -x86- servers, 40 Primergy -x86- servers and an Eternus storage system, as the foundations of its enhanced network technology. The NGIN system provides real-t - Date : Wed, 13 Apr 2011 12:22:40 GMT+00:00
Microsoft has Windows running on Arm already - Fudzilla Tweet this news
Fudzilla--While departing from the -x86- obessessed world, it would give Microsoft access to machines running Qualcomm Snapdragons, Apple A5s and Samsung Hummingbirds. The cosy relationship between Microsoft and -x86- architecture, which lead to the succe - Date : Wed, 13 Apr 2011 12:04:42 GMT+00:00

Generation First introduced Prominent consumer CPU brands Linear/physical address space Notable (new) features
1 1978 Intel 8086, Intel 8088 and clones 16-bit / 20-bit (segmented) first x86 microprocessors
1982 Intel 80186, Intel 80188 and clones, NEC V20/V30 hardware for fast address calculations, fast mul/div etc.
2 Intel 80286 and clones 16-bit (30-bit virtual) / 24-bit (segmented) MMU, for protected mode and a larger address space
3 (IA-32) 1985 Intel 80386 and clones, AMD Am386 32-bit (46-bit virtual) / 32-bit 32-bit instruction set, MMU with paging
4 (FPU) 1989 Intel486 and clones, AMD Am486/Am5x86 risc-like pipelining, integrated x87 FPU (80-bit), on-chip cache
4/5 1997 IDT/Centaur-C6, Cyrix III-Samuel, VIA C3-Samuel2 / VIA C3-Ezra (2001), VIA C7 (2005) In-order, integrated FPU, some models with on-chip L2 cache, MMX, SSE
5 1993 Pentium, Pentium MMX, Cyrix 5x86, Rise mP6 superscalar, 64-bit databus, faster FPU, MMX (2x 32-bit)
5/6 1996 AMD K5, Nx586 (1994) ΞΌ-op translation, conditional move instructions
6 1995 Pentium Pro, Cyrix 6x86, Cyrix MII, Cyrix III-Joshua (2000) as above / 36-bit physical (PAE) ΞΌ-op translation, conditional move instructions, Out-of-order, register renaming, speculative execution, PAE (Pentium Pro), in-package L2 cache (Pentium Pro)
1997 AMD K6/-2/3, Pentium II/III L3-cache support, 3DNow, SSE (2x 64-bit)
2003 Pentium M, Intel Core (2006) optimized for low power
7 1999 Athlon, Athlon XP superscalar FPU, wide design (up to three x86 instr./clock)
2000 Pentium 4 deeply pipelined, high frequency, SSE2, hyper-threading
7/8 2000 Transmeta Crusoe, Efficeon VLIW design with x86 emulator, on-die memory controller
2004 Pentium 4 Prescott 64-bit / 40-bit physical in first AMD implementation. very deeply pipelined, very high frequency, SSE3, 64-bit capability (integer CPU) is available only in LGA 775 sockets
2006 Intel Core 2 64-bit (integer CPU), low power, multi-core, lower clock frequency, SSE4 (Penryn)
2008 VIA Nano Out-of-order, superscalar, 64-bit (integer CPU), hardware-based encryption, very low power, adaptive power management
8 (x86-64) 2003 Athlon 64, Opteron x86-64 instruction set (CPU main integer core), on-die memory controller, hypertransport
8/9 2007 AMD Phenom as above / 48-bit physical for AMD Phenom monolithic quad-core, SSE4a, HyperTransport 3 or QuickPath, native memory controller, on-die L3 cache, modular design, in-package GPU (some Core i3/i5 models)
2008 Intel Core i3, Intel Core i5, Intel Core i7, AMD Phenom II
Intel Atom In-order but highly pipelined, very-low-power, on some models: 64-bit (integer CPU), on-die GPU
2011 AMD Bobcat, Llano Out-of-order, 64-bit (integer CPU), on-die GPU, low power (Bobcat)
9 (GPU) 2011 Intel Sandy Bridge, AMD Bulldozer and Trinity SSE5/AVX (4x 64-bit), highly modular design, integrated on-die GPU
  2012 Intel Haswell FMA3 instructions, DDR4
  2012 Intel Larrabee very wide vector unit, LRBni instructions (8x 64-bit)

Structure : Floating point and SIMD
64 56 48 40 32 24 16 8
?H ?L

Structure : Floating point and SIMD
16 8

Structure : Floating point and SIMD
64 56 48 40 32 24 16 8

Structure : Floating point and SIMD
64 56 48 40 32 24 16 8

Structure : Floating point and SIMD
64 56 48 40 32 24 16 8

Structure : Floating point and SIMD
64 56 48 40 32 24 16 8

x86 assembly topics

TopicsAssembly language * Comparison of assemblers * Disassembler * Microprocessor instruction set * Low-level programming language * Machine code * Microassembler * x86 assembly language
x86 AssemblersA86/A386 * FASM * GAS * HLA * MASM * NASM * TASM * WASM * YASM
Programming issuesCall stack * Flags (Carry flag * Overflow flag * Zero flag) * Opcode * Program counter * Processor register * x86 calling conventions * x86 instruction listings * x86 registers

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