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Thirty Years' War

Thirty Years War
Les Grandes Misères de la guerre (The Great Miseries of War) by Jacques Callot, 1632.
Military Conflict
ConflictThirty Years War
Date1618 � 1648
LocationEurope (primarily present day Germany)
ResultPeace of Westphalia * Habsburg supremacy curtailed * Rise of the Bourbon dynasty * Rise of the Swedish Empire * Decentralization of the Holy Roman Empire * Franco-Spanish War until 1659 * Substantial decline in the power and influence of the Catholic Church
Protestant States and Allies Sweden Sweden
Kingdom of France
Denmark Denmark-Norway (1625-1629)
Electorate of Saxony
United Provinces
Palatinate Arms.svg Electoral Palatinate
Kingdom of England
Kingdom of Scotland
Brandenburg_Wappen.svg Brandenburg-Prussia
Flag of Transylvania before 1918.svg Transylvania
Hungarian Anti-Habsburg Rebels
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg Zaporozhian Cossacks 
Ottoman Empire
Roman Catholic States and Allies Holy Roman Empire
* Catholic League (Germany).svg Catholic League * Habsburg Monarchy Austria * Bavaria Flag of New Spain.svg Spain and its possessions
Denmark Denmark-Norway (1643-1645)
Sweden Gustavus II Adolphus 
Sweden Johan Banér
Sweden Lennart Torstenson
Sweden Carl Gustaf Wrangel
Sweden Charles X Gustav
Kingdom of France Louis XIII of France
Kingdom of France Cardinal Richelieu
Kingdom of France Marquis de Feuquieres 
Kingdom of France Louis II de Bourbon
Kingdom of France Vicomte de Turenne
Bohemia Frederick V
Bohemia Jindrich Matyas Thurn
Bohemia Christian I of Anhalt-Bernburg
Denmark Christian IV of Denmark
Electorate of Saxony Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar
Electorate of Saxony Johann Georg I of Saxony
Dutch Republic Maurice of Nassau
Dutch Republic Piet Pieterszoon Hein
Dutch Republic William of Nassau
Dutch Republic Frederik Hendrik of Orange
Dutch Republic Maarten Tromp
Dutch Republic Ernst Casimir
Dutch Republic Hendrik Casimir I
Kingdom of England Duke of Buckingham
Kingdom of Scotland Earl of Leven
Flag of Transylvania before 1918.svg Gabriel Bethlen
Ernst von Mansfeld
Christian of Brunswick
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg Bohdan Khmelnytsky 
Holy Roman Empire Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly 
Holy Roman Empire Albrecht von Wallenstein
Holy Roman Empire Ferdinand II
Holy Roman Empire Ferdinand III
Holy Roman Empire Franz von Mercy 
Holy Roman Empire Johann von Werth
Holy Roman EmpireGottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim
Maximilian I
Spain Philip IV of Spain
Spain Count-Duke of Olivares
Spain Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba
Spain Ambrosio Spinola
Spain Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand
Spain Gómez Suárez de Figueroa
Spain Fadrique de Toledo
Spain Antonio de Oquendo
Spain Francisco de Melo
Spain Diego Felipez de Guzmán
495,000 men: * 150,000 Swedish * 20,000 Danish & Norwegian * 75,000 Dutch * Approx: 100-150,000 Germans * 150,000 French * 20-30,000 Hungarians (Anti-Habsburg Hungarian rebels) * 6,000 Transylvanians
450,000 men: * 300,000 Spanish (includes soldiers from the Spanish Netherlands and Italy) * 100-200,000 Germans * Approx: 20,000 Hungarian and Croatian cavalry

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The Thirty Years' War (1618 � 1648) was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most countries in Europe. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history.

The origins of the conflict and goals of the participants were complex, and no single cause can accurately be described as the main reason for the fighting. Initially, the war was fought largely as a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire, although disputes over the internal politics and balance of power within the Empire played a significant part. Gradually, the war developed into a more general conflict involving most of the European powers. In this general phase, the war became more a continuation of the Bourbon � Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence, and in turn led to further warfare between France and the Habsburg powers, and less specifically about religion.

A major impact of the Thirty Years' War was the extensive destruction of entire regions, denuded by the foraging armies (bellum se ipsum alet). Episodes of famine and disease significantly decreased the populace of the German states, Bohemia, the Low Countries and Italy, while bankrupting most of the combatant powers. While the regiments within each army were not strictly mercenary in that they were not guns for hire that changed sides from battle to battle, the individual soldiers that made up the regiments for the most part probably were. The problem of discipline was made more difficult still by the ad hoc nature of 17th-century military financing. Armies were expected to be largely self-funding from loot taken or tribute extorted from the settlements where they operated. This encouraged a form of lawlessness that imposed often severe hardship on inhabitants of the occupied territory. Some of the quarrels that provoked the war went unresolved for a much longer time. The Thirty Years' War was ended with the treaties of Osnabrück and Münster, part of the wider Peace of Westphalia.

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