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Second Sino-Japanese War

Second Sino-Japanese War
Map showing the extent of Japanese control in 1940.
Military Conflict
ConflictSecond Sino-Japanese War
DateJuly 7, 1937 � September 2, 1945 (minor fighting since 1931)
LocationMainland China, Outer Mongolia, and Burma
Result*Surrender of all Japanese forces in mainland China (excluding Manchuria), Formosa and French Indochina north of 16° north to the Republic of China. *China recovers all territories lost to Japan since the Treaty of Shimonoseki. *China becomes a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.
Republic of China
Republic of China1
with foreign support
* United States * USSR Soviet volunteers
Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
with collaborator support
(Nanjing Nationalist Government, Manchukuo, Mengjiang, Provisional Government of China,
Reformed Government of China, East Hebei Autonomous Council...)
ROC Chiang Kai-shek
ROC Chen Cheng
ROC Yan Xishan
ROC Li Zongren
ROC Xue Yue
ROC Bai Chongxi
ROC Wei Lihuang
ROC Du Yuming
ROC Fu Zuoyi
Flag of the Chinese Communist Party.svg Mao Zedong
Flag of the Chinese Communist Party.svg Zhu De
Flag of the Chinese Communist Party.svg Peng Dehuai
US Joseph Stilwell
US Claire Chennault
US Albert Wedemeyer
Empire of Japan Hirohito
Empire of Japan Korechika Anami
Empire of Japan Yasuhiko Asaka
Empire of Japan Shunroku Hata
Empire of Japan Seishirō Itagaki
Empire of Japan Kotohito Kan'in
Empire of Japan Iwane Matsui
Empire of Japan Toshizō Nishio
Empire of Japan Yasuji Okamura
Empire of Japan Hajime Sugiyama
Empire of Japan Hideki Tōjō
Empire of Japan Yoshijirō Umezu
3,600 Soviets(1937 � 40)
900 US aircraft (1942 � 45)
900,000 Chinese collaborators
Nationalist: 1,320,000 KIA, 1,797,000 WIA, 120,000 MIA, and 17,000,000-22,000,000 civilians dead
Communist: 500,000 KIA and WIA.
Japanese estimates � including 480,000 dead in total
1937 � 1941: 185,647 dead, 520,000 wounded, and 430,000 sick; 1941 � 1945: 202,958 dead; another 54,000 dead after war's end. 2
Nationalist Chinese estimates � 1.77 million deaths, 1.9 million wounded

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The Second Sino-Japanese War (July 7, 1937 � September 9, 1945) was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. From 1937 to 1941, China fought Japan with some economic help from Germany (see Sino-German cooperation), the Soviet Union (1937 � 1940) and the United States (see American Volunteer Group). After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (1941), the war merged into the greater conflict of World War II as a major front of what is broadly known as the Pacific War. The Second Sino-Japanese War was the largest Asian war in the 20th century. It also made up more than 50% of the casualties in the Pacific War if the 1937 � 1941 period is taken into account.

Although the two countries had fought intermittently since 1931, total war started in earnest in 1937 and ended only with the surrender of Japan in 1945. The war was the result of a decades-long Japanese imperialist policy aiming to dominate China politically and militarily and to secure its vast raw material reserves and other economic resources, particularly food and labour. Before 1937, China and Japan fought in small, localized engagements, so-called "incidents". Yet the two sides, for a variety of reasons, refrained from fighting a total war. In 1931, the Japanese invasion of Manchuria by Japan's Kwantung Army followed the Mukden Incident. The last of these incidents was the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937, marking the beginning of total war between the two countries.

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