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Napoleonic Wars

Napoleonic Wars
Military Conflict
ConflictNapoleonic Wars
Datecirca 1803 � 1815
LocationEurope, Atlantic Ocean, Río de la Plata, French Guiana, Indian Ocean, North America
ResultCoalition victory, Congress of Vienna * End of the First French Empire, Bourbon Restoration * Establishment of the Concert of Europe * Various territorial and dynastic changes
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Austrian Empire[a][b]
Russian Empire[c]
Portugal Portugal
Two Sicilies[e]
Papal States
Ottoman Empire (until 1803)
Kingdom of Sardinia
United Netherlands
Brunswick Brunswick
Kingdom of France French Royalists
Hanover Hanover
Flag of the House of Nassau Weilburg.svg Nassau
France France *Grand Coat of Arms of Duchy of Warsaw.svg Duchy of Warsaw[g] *Napoleonic Italy *Netherlands Holland[h] *Napoleonic Italy Etruria[i] *Swiss Swiss Confederation *Two Sicilies Naples[j] *Flag of the Confederation of the Rhine.svg Confederation of the Rhine:[k]
[n] Denmark Denmark � Norway[l]
Ottoman Empire[m]
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland George III
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Duke of Wellington
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Horatio Nelson 
Austrian Empire Francis I
Austrian Empire Archduke Charles
Austrian Empire Prince von Schwarzenberg
Austrian Empire Archduke John Russia Alexander I
Russia Mikhail Kutuzov
Russia Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly
Russia Count Bennigsen
Russia Pyotr Bagration 
Prussia Frederick William III
Prussia Gebhard von Blücher
Prussia Duke of Brunswick 
Prussia Prince of Hohenlohe
Spain Ferdinand VII
Spain Miguel de Álava
Portugal Prince John
Portugal Miguel Pereira Forjaz
Netherlands William, Prince of Orange
Two SiciliesFerdinand IV
Sweden Gustav IV Adolf
Sweden Prince Charles John[o]
Kingdom of France Louis XVIII
France Napoleon
France Louis Alexandre Berthier
France Joachim Murat
France Louis Nicolas Davout
France Jean Lannes 
France André Masséna
France Michel Ney
France Jean-de-Dieu Soult
France Jean-Baptiste Bessières 
France and other Marshals
France Pierre-Charles Villeneuve 
Spain Joseph I[p]
Netherlands Louis Bonaparte
Westphalia Jérôme Bonaparte
Duchy of Warsaw 11.PG Prince Poniatowski 
Napoleonic Italy Prince Eugène
Flag of the Confederation of the Rhine.svg Maximilian I
Flag of the Confederation of the Rhine.svg Frederick Augustus I
Flag of the Confederation of the Rhine.svg Frederick I
Denmark Frederick VI
from 3,350,000 to 6,500,000, see Full list

     Home | Military Conflict | Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars declared against Napoleon's French Empire by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815. As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789, they revolutionized European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly due to the application of modern mass conscription. French power rose quickly as Napoleon's armies conquered much of Europe but collapsed rapidly after France's disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812. Napoleon's empire ultimately suffered complete military defeat resulting in the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in France. The wars resulted in the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and sowed the seeds of nascent nationalism in Germany and Italy that would lead to the two nations' consolidation later in the century. Meanwhile, the global Spanish Empire began to unravel as French occupation of Spain weakened Spain's hold over its colonies, providing an opening for nationalist revolutions in Spanish America. As a direct result of the Napoleonic wars, the British Empire became the foremost world power for the next century, thus beginning Pax Britannica.

No consensus exists as to when the French Revolutionary Wars ended and the Napoleonic Wars began. An early candidate is 9 November 1799, when Bonaparte seized power in France with the coup of 18 Brumaire. 18 May 1803 is the most commonly used date, as this was when a renewed declaration of war between Britain and France (resulting from the collapse of the Treaty of Amiens), ended the only period of general peace in Europe between 1792 and 1814. The latest proposed date whomdate=May 2011 is 2 December 1804, when Napoleon crowned himself Emperor.

The Napoleonic Wars ended following Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo on 18 June 1815 and the Second Treaty of Paris.

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