( ; ; literally: Production Association Southern Machine-Building Plant named after A.M. Makarov) is a Ukrainian manufacturer of space rockets, agricultural equipment, buses, trolley buses and trams, wind turbines, and satellites. It is a large state-owned company located in Dnipropetrovsk.
Conversion of the Plant 586 to missile production began when Academician Mikhail Yangel, who previously headed OKB-1 (Experimental Design Bureau No. 1, currently RKK Energiya) of NII-88 (Scientific Research Institute No. 88, currently the Central Scientific Research Institute of Machine-Building, or TsNIIMash), was authorized to convert the chief designer's division of the plant into an autonomous design bureau designated OKB-586 (subsequently designated Yuzhnoye Design Bureau, currently Pivdenne Design Bureau) in 1954. Unlike Sergey Korolev, who was a supporter of missiles using cryogenic fuels, Yangel preferred a liquid fuel technology. Yangel's OKB-586 was established to pursue development of ballistic missiles using storable liquid fuels. Plant 586, which was renamed Yuzhnyy Machine-Building Plant in 1966, and subsequently Yuzhnoye Machine-Building Production Association, or Yuzhmash, concentrated on producing ballistic missiles designed by the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau. Missiles produced at Yuzhmash included R-5M [SS-3 'Shyster'], R-12 [SS-4 'Sandal'], R-14 [SS-5 'Skean'], R-16 [SS-7 'Saddler'], R-36 [SS-9 'Scarp'], MR UR-100 [SS-17 'Spanker'], and R-36M [SS-18 'Satan']. During the Soviet era, the plant was capable of producing of up to 120 ICBMs a year. In the late 1980s, Yuzhmash was selected to be the main production facility of the RT-2PM2 Topol-M ICBM. However, the break-up of the Soviet Union eliminated Yuzhmash as a potential manufacturer.
Pivdenmash is now one of the largest industrial enterprises in Ukraine. As of January 2003, Pivdenmash employed 13,000 workers. In 2001 it sold production worth 335.6 million hryvne ($62.7 million as of December 2001), although in 2002 its sales decreased to 122.1 million hryvne ($22.8 million as of December 2002). In addition to production facilities in Dnipropetrovsk, Pivdenne Production Association includes the Pavlohrad Mechanical Plant, which specialized in producing solid-fuel missiles. Pivdenmash's importance was further bolstered by its links to Ukraine's former President Leonid Kuchma, who worked at Pivdenmash between 1975 and 1992. He was the plant's general director from 1986 to 1991.
The company has been the key missile producer for Soviet ICBM and space exploration programs. Yuzhmash launch systems included:
* the R-5M - the Soviet Union's first nuclear armed missile
* the R-12 Dvina theatre ballistic missile
* the R-14 Chusovaya theatre ballistic missile
* the R-16 - the first Soviet ICBM
* the R-36 ICBM (converted to Dnepr rocket)
After the beginning of perestroika, demand for such production declined significantly, and Yuzhmash has been partly converted for civil machinery.
Trolleybus models include the articulated YuMZ T1 (1992-1998) and its non-articulated brother, the YuMZ T2. The T2 continues to be produced alongside the more modern YuMZ E-186 which features a low floor cabin.
Leonid Kuchma, long-time chief manager of the company, became the Prime Minister and later President of Ukraine in 1994.