The song received generally positive review from music critics, with many highlighting the song's light pop melody and hook, however, also garnering some backlash from certain music reviewers, who felt the song didn't properly represent the singer's acclaimed 5-octave vocal range. "Touch My Body" became Carey's eighteenth chart topper on the Billboard Hot 100, making Carey the solo artist with the most number one singles in United States history, surpassing the record held by Elvis Presley. Additionally, it gave Carey her 79th week atop the chart, tying Presley for most weeks at number one. Throughout Europe, the song achieved high charting, peaking within the top five on the charts in Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
Carey performed "Touch My Body" on several live televised events and programs, debuting it on Saturday Night Live as a two-piece performance. Similarly, Carey opened the Good Morning America "Summer Concert Series" on April 25, 2008, singing the song, as well as two other singles from E=MC2. Similar renditions took place at the season premiere party of The Hills, as well as a mash-up of the song with "I'll Be Lovin' U Long Time" at the Teen Choice Awards. Aside from reprising performances of the British programs The Sunday Night Project and The Paul O'Grady Show, and German talent show Deutschland sucht den Superstar, the song was included on the set-list of Carey's North American Angels Advocate Tour, held throughout 2009 and 2010.
The song's music video was directed by film-maker Brett Ratner, who had previously worked with Carey on five other music videos. It follows around a story revolving around a computer employees fantasy as he visits Carey's home. As he fixes her computer, he enters a fantasy in which the pair perform several activities together, including a pillow fight, playing laser tag, Guitar Hero and slot cars, and throw a frisbee, all while showing off Carey's figure in several revealing outfits. The music video won in the category of "Best Comedic Video" at the 2008 BET Awards, and won the "MTV Video Vanguard Award" at the 2008 MTV Video Music Awards Japan. Additionally, the video was nominated for "Best Female Video" at the 2008 MTV Video Music Awards.