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Oakland, California

Oakland California
Full nameOakland
Official nameCity of Oakland
Settlement typeCity
CountryUnited States
MayorJean Quan (D)
SenateLoni Hancock (D)
AssemblyNancy Skinner (D)
Sandré Swanson (D)
Mary Hayashi (D)
U. S. CongressBarbara Lee (D) (CA-09)
Total Area78.002 sq mi (202 km2)
Land Area55.786 sq mi (144.5 km2)
Water Area22.216 sq mi (57.5 km2)
Elevation42 ft (12.8 m)
Total Population390724 (1st in Alameda County
8th in California
47th in the United States) (2010)
Density (pop.)auto/km2 (0/sq mi)
Other information
Time zonePST (UTC−8)
- Summer (DST)PDT (UTC−7)
ZIP code94601, 94602, 94603, 94605, 94606, 94607, 94610, 94611, 94612, 94618, 94619, 94615, 94621
Area code510
FIPS code06-53000
GNIS feature ID0277566

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Oakland (c-eniconˈoʊklənd) is a major West Coast port city on San Francisco Bay in the U.S. state of California. It is the eighth-largest city in the state with a population of 390,724 in 2010. Originally incorporated in 1852, Oakland is the county seat of Alameda County and is a central hub city for a region of the San Francisco Bay Area known as the East Bay.

Oakland's territory covers what was once a mosaic of coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, and north coastal scrub. Oakland served as a rich resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco, and Oakland's fertile flatland soils helped it become a prolific agricultural region. During the California Gold Rush, Oakland became the main staging post for passengers and cargo journeying between the Bay Area and the Sierra foothills. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the western terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. It continued to grow into the 20th century with its busy port, shipyards, and a thriving automobile industry. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Franciscans left that city's destruction, and a great number of Oakland's homes were built during the 1910s and 1920s. An extensive streetcar network connected most of Oakland's neighborhoods to inter-city rail lines, most of whose routes continue as bus lines today. Ferry lines connnected Oakland to San Francisco and other cities.

The 20th century saw a steady influx of immigrants to Oakland from around the globe who, along with thousands of African-American war-industry workers who relocated from the Deep South during the 1940s, have made Oakland one of the most ethnically diverse major cities in the country. Oakland is known for its history of political activism, as well as its professional sports franchises and major corporations, which include health care, dot-com companies and manufacturers of household products. The city is a transportation hub for the greater Bay Area, and its shipping port is the fifth busiest in the United States.

Oakland has a Mediterranean climate with an average of 300 sunny days per year. Lake Merritt, a large estuary centrally located east of Downtown, was designated the United States' first official wildlife refuge. Jack London Square, named for the author and former resident, is a tourist destination on the Oakland waterfront. Some progress has been made in reducing the city's high crime rate; violent crime is primarily concentrated in certain neighborhoods, although property crime remains problematic throughout the city. Oakland is continually listed among the top cities in the United States for sustainability practices, including a #1 ranking for usage of electricity from renewable resources.

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