|LocalTranscription1||Min Nan POJ: Hái-lâm-séng|
Cantonese Jyutping: Hoi2 Naam1 Saang2
|AbbrevPinyin||Qióng, POJ: khêng, Jyutping: king4|
|OriginOfName||海 hǎi - sea |
南 nán - south
"South of the Sea [Qiongzhou Strait]"
|Latitude||18° 10' to 20° 10' N|
|Longitude||108° 37' to 111° 16' E|
|GDP||205.2 billion (US$30.3 billion)|
|Nationalities||Han - 82.6%|
Li - 15.84%
Miao - 0.82%
Zhuang - 0.67%
|Dialects||Hainanese, Yue, Hlai|
Hainan ( ; pinyin: , Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hái-lâm, jyutping: Hoi2 Naam4, literally "South of the Sea [Qiongzhou Strait]") is the smallest province of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Although the province comprises some two hundred islands scattered among three archipelagos off the southern coast, 32900 km2 (97%) of its land mass is Hainan Island (Hainan Dao), from which the province takes its name. The name "Hainan", to the people of China, usually refers to Hainan Island itself; however the PRC government claims territories of the province extend to the southern Spratly Islands, Paracel Islands, and other disputed marine territory. Hainan is also the largest Special Economic Zone laid out by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in the late 1980s.
Hainan Island is located in the South China Sea, separated from Guangdong's Leizhou Peninsula to the north by the shallow and narrow Qiongzhou Strait. It has an area of 33920 km2 (13096.6 sqmi) and is China's southernmost province. For centuries Hainan was part of Guangdong province, but in 1988 this resource-rich tropical island became a separate province.
There are a total of eight major cities and ten counties in Hainan. Haikou on the northern coast is the capital whilst Sanya is a well-known tourist destination on the south coast. The Paracel Islands and Spratly Islands, south of Sanya, are claimed by the People's Rebublic of China and thus considered to form an administrative district of Hainan by them. Sovereignty of the islands is however disputed. The Paracel Islands are claimed by Vietnam, the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (Taiwan) whilst the Spratly Islands are subject to claims by Vietnam, the People's Republic of China, Taiwan, Malaysia, The Philippines, and Brunei.
The other major cities on the island are Wenchang, Qionghai, Wanning, Wuzhishan, Dongfang and Danzhou.