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Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba

Personal data
Date of birth29 October, 1507
Place of birthPiedrahíta, Ávila, Spain
Date of deathDecember 11, 1582(age 75)
Place of deathLisbon, Portugal
Military service
AllegianceSpain Spain
*Ottoman-Habsburg wars **Conquest of Tunis *Italian Wars **Siege of Perpignan *Schmalkaldic War **Battle of Mühlberg **Siege of Wittenberg *Dutch Revolt **Battle of Jemmingen **Battle of Jodoigne *War of the Portuguese Succession **Battle of Alcântara
Governor of the Spanish Netherlands
In office1567 - 1573
MonarchPhilip II of Spain
Succeeded byLuis de Requesens
Preceded byMargaret of Austria
Viceroy of Portugal
In office1580 - 1582
MonarchPhilip II of Spain
Succeeded byAlbert, Archduke of Austria
Preceded byNew title

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Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alba (29 October 1507 11 December 1582) was a Spanish general and governor of the Spanish Netherlands (1567 1573), nicknamed "the Iron Duke" in the Low Countries because of his harsh and cruel rule there and his role in the execution of his political opponents and the massacre of several cities.

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