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Drug information
Systematic (IUPAC) name
IUPAC namemethyl (1R,2R,3S,5S)-3- (benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1] octane-2-carboxylate
Chemical data
Mol. mass303.353 g/mol
Synonymsmethylbenzoylecgonine, benzoylmethylecgonine
Melt. point98
Boiling point187 �C
Solubility in water1800 mg/mL (20 �C)
BioavailabilityOral: 33%
Insufflated: 60 � 80%
Nasal Spray: 25 � 43%
MetabolismHepatic CYP3A4
Half-life1 hour
ExcretionRenal (benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester)
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat C
Dependence LiabilityHigh
RoutesTopical, Oral, Insufflation, IV, PO

     Home | Drugs | Cocaine

Cocaine benzoylmethylecgonine (INN) is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. The name comes from "coca" in addition to the alkaloid suffix -ine, forming cocaine. It is a stimulant of the central nervous system, an appetite suppressant, and a topical anesthetic. Specifically, it is a serotonin � norepinephrine � dopamine reuptake inhibitor, which mediates functionality of these neurotransmitters as an exogenous catecholamine transporter ligand. Because of the way it affects the mesolimbic reward pathway, cocaine is addictive.

Its possession, cultivation, and distribution are illegal for non-medicinal and non-government sanctioned purposes in virtually all parts of the world. Although its free commercialization is illegal and has been severely penalized in virtually all countries, its use worldwide remains widespread in many social, cultural, and personal settings.

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